My Petit Sommelier©

~ Becoming a Sommelier~
 

 

 

Work-in-progress: Incorporating Flashs Card Exchange Levels I, II & III, Professional Culinary Institute hand-out at the two-day summary followed by Levels I & II test, & known test Q&As for same…Anticipate finishing this by end of 8/31/10. When you study for Level I, you essentially are studying for Level II as well, which will have blind-tasting of two noble grapes, New World vs. Old World, and service waiting on four Master Sommeliers...

Random Questions
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Canada
Chile
France
   Alsace
  
Bordeaux
  
Burgundy
  
Champagne
  
The Loire
  
The Rhone
   The SouthWest
   The Jura & Savoy
Germany
Italy
Portugal
New Zealand
Spain
South Africa
USA
   California
  
Oregon
  
New York
  
Washington
Liquors
Beers
Liqueurs
Cocktails
Coffees
Serving Temperatures
Wine Making
Varietal Profiles
Wine Menu


RANDOM QUESTIONS

What is the Italian term for Botrytized wine?
Muffato

What is the difference between oxidized and maderized wines?
Both turn the wines brown, but oxidization is caused by air contact and maderization is caused by heat contact. Both turn a white wine brown and cause nutty aromas.

Name the species of grape used for making wine.
Vitis Vinifera
 
What is the hybrid of Pinotage from South America?
Piot Noir & Cinsault

What is the alcohol in wine called?
Ethanol

What is Mutage?
The fermentation is stopped early by the addition of alcohol before the must has fermented out all the sugar. It is part of the process of making VDNs (Vin Douex Naturale)
 
What is The Wort?
The liquid that is produced in the beer making process from the malt meal that is created from the roasted barley step. The wort is then filtered, flavored, f ermented, cooked and kegged or bottled.

How is a cigar size stated
In Length and ring sizes
 
How is Beaujolais Nouveaux Produced?
Carbonic Maceration
 
What is the formula for fermentation?
Yeast + Sugar + Heat + Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide
 
Where was the first AVA?

Augusta, Missouri

What is the Pineau de la Loire grape more commonly known as?
Chenin Blanc
 
in what town was Dom Perignon the Cellar Master?
Hatvillers

What is the red grape of Bourgueil in the Touraine district of the Loire Valley
Cab Franc

Where is Glenrowan and Rutherglen located?
Northeast Victoria

What is Amtliche Prufungsnumber?
The control number on labels of QbA wine

What is Klassifizierte Lage?
Wines of superior quality from a single, terroir-driven, classified site which will be named on the label.

What is Gutsweine and Orstweine?
HIgh-quality basic wines which have a regional character

What are four regions of the Limestone coast?
C
oonwarra, Mount Benson, Padthway and Wrattonbully

What style of wine is Jurancon known for?
A sweet white, golden wine with exotic fruits and honey aromas. It can age for a very long time. It is one of the best wines in the South West of France.
 
Name a region in the Loire whose wines would be considered an inexpensive version of Sancerre
The Menetou-Salon and the other immediate surrounding areas - it is not Pouilly Fume
 
What is Rasteau?
A VDN (Vin Doux Naturale) made mostly of Grenache - one of the  Southern Cotes du Rhone sweet AOC wines

What is Bonnezeaux?
A grand cru AOC of Coteaux du Layon in Anjou (The Loire) made from Chenin Blanc. It is alongside the Quarts de Chaume producing the finest sweet wine in the Anjou.
 
What is the white Crozes Hermitage in the Rhone made from?
Marsanne & Rousanne

VDNs vs Vins de Liquer (VDLs)
VDNs are fortified with a neutral grape brandy while VDLs are fortified with a spirit from their own region. ie: cognac is in pineau des chaventes; fine de champagne is in ratafia; and armagnac is in floc de gascogne
 
What are the large stones in Chateneuf de pape vineyards called?
Galets

What is the liquer de tirage?
Mixture of sweet reserve wine, sugar and yeast which is added before the second fermentation in champange
 
What is the liquer d'expedition
Wine and sugar added to champagne to top it off after disgorgement - more commonly called dossage
 
What is the grape of Chinon (in Touraine, The Loire Valley)
Cab Franc
 
What is the grape of Vouvray (in Touraine, The Loire Valley)
Chenin Blanc
 
What grapes are allowed in the Cote Rotie? (Northern Rhone)
Syrah & Viognier

What grape is allowed in the sparkling Cremant de Loire (
Cremant de Loire encompasses the Anjou, Samur and Touraine regions)
Chenin Blanc
 
What does Cote d'Or mean? (The Cote d’Nuit (night) & Cote d’Beaune regions in Burgundy)
Golden Slope
 
What grapes are best suited for the Hunter Valley (
The Hunter Valley is north of Sydney in New South Wales wine country)
Semillion & Chard
 
What is the difference between an Einzellage and a Grosslage? (German wine laws)
Einzellage is one specific vineyard and Grossalage is a group of vineyards.


What is Lagrein and where is it found?
A red grape sometimes made into a rose from the Trentino Alto Adige area in Northern Italy
  
What is Steen?
What Chenin Blanc is bottled and called in South Africa
 
What is the grape for Montepluciano?
A clone of Sangiovese called Prugnolo Gentile
 
Name the only area that Manzanilla style sherry is produced in Spain
Sanlucar de Barameda – Made from Palimino Fino grapes – Very dry and influenced by the sea
 
Where is Chinon & Vouvray
Touraine an area in the Loire – makes wine from Chenin Blanc

What does Brix measure and what is it equal to?
The sugar in a grape which equals 1/2 the alcohol level in a wine.
2 Brix = 1% Alcohol
28 Brix = 14% Alcohol
 
The best temperature for a beer cellar is what?
55 degrees F
12.7 degrees C

What is the best growing parallel for grapes
The 49th parallel between 30 degrees and 50 degrees lattitude

What is the equivalent level of the AOC in France for Italy, Spain, Germany?
Italy = DOCG
Spain = DOCa
Germany = QmP
 
Name all the levels of quality for France lowest to highest.
Vin de Table
Vin de pays
VDQS (Vin Delimite Qualite Superior)
AOC (Appellation de Origine Controlee)

Name some of the main divisions of Cognac
Petite Champagne
Grand Champagne
Borderies
Fin Bois
 
Name all the levels of quality for Germany lowest to highest.
Tafelwein
Landwein
Qba
QmP
 
Name all the levels of quality for Italy lowest to highest.
Vino da Tavola
IGT
DOC
DOCG

What region means Roasted Slopes and where is It?
Cote Rotie in the Northern Rhone


What do the AOC Laws Control? (There are 6 laws that the French tell the vineyard owner what to do)
Location
Viticultural practices
Vinification techniques
Varietals permitted
Min alcohol
Max yields

Name 2 Grand Cru Vineyards in Champagne
Oger
Oiry
Verzy
 
Name the Appellations of The Medoc (There are 7, but first 5 are really well known)
St Julien
St Estephe
Haut Medoc
Margaux
Pauillac
Listrac-Medoc
Moulis or Moulis-en-Medoc
 
Name 3 Grand Cru vineyards in the Haut Rhine
Rosacker
Osterberg
Rangen

Name 2 communes of Sauternes
Barsac
Bommes

What are the three grapes used for Sauternes?
Semillion
Sav Blanc
Muscadelle

Where is Cahors and what grape do they grow? (SW France)
Malbec

 

Where is Bandol and what grape do they grow?
On the coast of Provence
Bandol is a blended wine with at least 50% Mouvedre, Grenache and Cinsaut

What do you call a sparkling wine from Alsace and what grape is never allowed in it?
Cremant d'Alsace - Gerwurtztraminer

Name the Grand Crus of Puligny Montrachet
Batard-Montrachet
Le Montrachet
Chevalier-Montrachet
Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet
Criots-Batard-Montrachet
  
Where are the communes of Mercurey, Ruilly & Givry
Cote Challonnais

What grape is grown in the towns of Die and the Drome Valley
The white Clairette - also the sparkling Clairette de Die with Muscat near Hermitage

Name the 5 red traditional grapes of Bordeaux Cab Sauv
Cab Franc
Merlot
Malbec
Petit Verdot
Carmenere

Name the 2 domaines in Chatenauf de Pape that have all 13 grapes allowed planted
Chateaux Beacastle
Domaine de Mont-Redon


What is VDN (Vin doux Naturel)
A sweet wine that is fortified during fermentation with a neutral grape brandy - examples are Banyuls, Port, Beaumes de Venice

What AOC produces the driest white wine of the Loire and with what grape?
Savienierres  in Anjor-Samur – Grape is Chenin Blanc

What grape is allowed in the sparkling cremant de loire
Chenin Blanc

What 2 other names does Muscadet go by?
Melon de bourgogne
Gamay Blanc

Name the main regions of Burgundy (there are six)
Chablis
Cote de Nuits
Cote de Beaune
Cote Challonais
Maconnais
Beaujolias 


Name 2 red and 2 white grapes of Austria
Pinot Noir & Lemberger
Gruner Veltliner & Welschriesling

What is Smaragd?
A specialty wine from the lower Wauchau area of Austria made from very ripe grapes

Name 3 regions of Austria
Wauchau
Kamptal
Kremstal

List the ripeness level of German wines from driest to sweetest (7)
Kabinett
Spatlese
Auslese
Beerenauslese (BA)
Eisewein
Trockenauslese (TBA)

What is the white grape used in Sardegna
Vermentino

What are the 7 districts of Chianti
Chianti Classico
Chianti Ruffina
Chianti Sensi
Chianti Fiorentini
Chianti Montalbano
Chianti Pisane
Colli Aretini

What is Ausbruch
Sweet Austrian wine affected with Botrytis


What % of grapes must be in a wine labeled with a specific AVA
85%


What is the grape for Montepluciano?
A clone of Sangiovese called Prugnolo Gentile

Name 2 of Portugal's regions
Northern - Douro
Dao
Barraida
Vinho Verdo
Southern - Carcavelos
Setubal
Arrabida
Alentejo

Which style sherry is NOT produced in the Solera system?
Almacenstas
a very small quantity produced each year

Which AOCs are on the right bank of Bordeaux?
What is their predominant grape?
What river are they on the right side of?

Pomerol and St Emilion - Merlot 70% - The Gironde

Where is Chinon & Vouvray
Touraine, an area in the Loire

Name the sweet wine regions of the Loire
Coteaux de Layon
Quarts de Charme
Bonnezaux
They all grow Chenin Blanc

What grape is used to make Banyuls? - What type of wine is it? - Where is it produced?
Grenache Noir - it is a VDL, like a port - in the Languedoc
Collioure is the still table wine version

Name 2 appellations of Anjou-Samur
Savennieres
Anjou
Bonnezeaux
Coteaux du Layon
Quarts de Charmes
Saumur
Saumur Champigny

What country is Santorini wine from?
Greece

What area are Padthaway wines from?
South Australia

What area is Orvieto wine from?
Umbria, Italy

What is the main grape of Veugot wines?
Pinot Noir

What is the largest AOC in Bordeaux?
The Medoc

What is the wine to change it's classification since the 1855 ruling, and in what year did it change?
In 1973 Mouton Rothschild moved from 2-1 the only one to change at all

Which region in France does reclassify it's rankings?
St Emilion

What are the 2 main regions of Alsace?
Bas Rhine & Haut Rhine

 

What is the difference between Vendange Tardive (VT) and Selection de Grains Nobles (SGN)?
VT is late harvest wines that are naturally sweet, and SGN are picked even later and affected by botrytis

What style wines are Provence's SW region Bergerac most similar to in style?
They are very much like Bordeaux

What is Cote de Beaune's sole Grand Cru?
Aloxe Cortone

What is the only wine that is actually cooked and what is the name of the vessel used to cook it in?
Madeira - Estufagem

 

Define Meritage. (Pronounced like Heritage with an M)
A California Bordeaux blend. Though many that qualify don't use the term because they don't pay the fees required. (e.g. Opus One is called simply red wine)

State a synonym for Fume Blanc.
Sauvignon Blanc

State the origin of Zinfandel.
Most likely Croatia. It is known as the following: Pimitivo in Italy Crljenak Kastelanski in Croatia

Name 2 important wine regions of Canada.
Niagara Peninsula
Okanagan Valley

Name the country where winemaking began on the American Continent.
Mexico

Name the region Casablanca is within and what wines the area is known for.
Country: Chile - Region: Aconcagua
Grapes: It is known for whites from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay

Name the most important region of Argentina.
Mendoza.

Name the most important grape of Argentina.
Malbec.

Name the most important grape of Uruguay.
Tannat.

Name the most famous region for Sauvignon Blanc (New Zealand)
Marlborough on the North Island

Name the up and coming region for Pinot Noir in New Zealand.
Martinborough on the South Island

State which island Hawkes Bay is on and what grapes it is known for.
North Island (New Zealand)
Grapes: Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Cab Blends

State why red wine grapes do well in some of the areas traditionally thought to be too cool for reds (New Zealand Specifically)
Mainly because of micro climates, although rain shadow and a lot of sunlight both add to the ability to grow red grapes.

State the minimum percent for varietal labeling in Australia.
85%

Name a grape grown in both Cognac and Armagnac.
Ugni Blanc - Colombard - Folle Blanche

Name the best Cognac and Armagnac regions and why they are the best.
Cognac: Grand Champagne, Petite Champagne and if its from both its called Grand Fine Champagne
Armagnac: Bas Armagnac Best regions in both are the Chalkiest regions in their respective areas
 

State the main labeling age terms for Cognac and Armagnac.
3 Star or VS: Very Special : min 3 years
5 Star or VSOP : Very Superiore Old Pale : Min 4 years
Napolean or XO: Extra Old : Min 5 years

Name the best region of Calvados.
Pays d'Auge

State the main flavoring ingredient in Gin.
Juniper Berries

State the source of sugar for the best Tequila.
The sap from the Blue Agave.

State the minimum sugar level in a liqueur.
2.5%

State a bitter liqueur suitable as an apertif or a digestive.
Campari, Pernod, Fernet Branca, Dubonnet, Jagermeister, Cynar, and Lillet.

Describe how cigar sizes are stated.
By Length and ring size. I.E. 5 1/2 inches by 50 ring 50 ring would be 50/64 of a 1/4 inch

State the ingredients allowed in the Bavarian Purity Law.
Malted Barley
Yeast
Water
Hops

Name an AOC for Rosé wine from Rhone or Provence.
Best answer is Tavel, but the following do make rosés as well:
Gigondas, Vacqueyras, Cotes du Rhone, Cotes du Rhone Villages, Lirac, Rasteau, and Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
And these make rose in Provence:
Cotes du Provence
Bandol
Les Beaux de Provence

Name an AOC of the Loire similar to Sancerre.
Pouilly-Fumé

Name the best sub-region of Graves.
Pessac-Leognan

Define Sur Lie.
Sur Lie or "On the Lies" is aging the wine on the dead yeast to create a premiere texture.

Name the grape of Sancerre.
Sauvignon Blanc

Define Vin Jaune.
Vin jaune (literally "yellow wine") is an unusual wine made in the Jura region of France. The wine is made from late harvest Savagnin grapes, an unusual local white variety. They are fermented slowly and then kept in small old oak casks. The casks are not topped up, unlike most wines, so an air gap appears above the wine due to evaporation. A film (flor) of yeast grows over the wine, protecting it partially from oxidation.
 

Name the major white grape of Burgundy.
Chardonnay

Name the AOC of Coulee de Serrant and Roche Aux Moines.
Savennieres - Which makes wines from Chenin Blanc

State the rough geographic location of Jura and Savoie.
The French Alps near the Swiss border. East of Burgundy.

Name the AOC used when dry white wines are made in Sauternes.
Bordeaux AOC

Define "Selection de Grains Noble"
Dessert wines from botrytis fruit.

Name the grape of Condrieu.
Viognier

State what the 2nd word is in most Cote D'Or village names.
The grand cru vineyard within the village. (Ex: Gevery-Chambertin and Puligny-Montrachet)

State the difference between Crozes-Hermitage and Hermitage.
Crozes-Hermitage contains flat land with clay soils. Hermitage contains lots of slopes and a more granite soil.

Name the grape of Vouvray.
Chenin-Blanc

Name 1 Cru in Beaujolais.
Brouilly
Chenas
Chiroubles
Cote de Brouilly
Fleurie
Julienas
Morgon
Moulin-A-Vent
Regnie
St. Amour

State the main labeling difference between Alsace and the rest of France.
In Alsace they label their wines by varietal whereas in the rest of France it is by a place name.

State what is different about Corton and Musigny compared to the other Grand Cru of their respective districts.
Corton is the only Grand Cru red wine in Cotes de Beaune which is normally known for whites.
Musigny is the only Grand Cru white wine in Cotes de Nuits which is usually known for reds.

State the production difference for Beaujolais Nouveau.
Carbonic Maceration

Name an AOC of the Loire that produces red wines from pinot noir.
Reuilly
Menetou-Salon
Sancerre

Define kimmeridgian soil.
A greyish limestone.

Define "Negociant"
A grape buyer. They buy grapes then produce wines.

Name the four sub-regions of the Loire.
Pays Nantais
Anjou-Saumur
Touraine
Central Vineyards

Name two AOCs of the Loire that produce red wines from cabernet franc.
Touraine
Touraine-Amboise
Chinon
Bourgeil

Define Terroir.
Anything to do with a sense of place.

State the AOCs of Alsace.
Cremant de Alsace
Alsace
Alsace Grand Cru

Name the portion of the Cote D'Or best known for whites.
Cote de Beaune

Name the portion of the Cote D'Or best known for reds.
Cote de Nuits

Name the rough geographic location of Languedoc and Roussillon
Between the Meditteranean and the Pyrnees.

Name the famous sparklig wine of the Languedoc.
Cremant de Limoux

Name the AOC for Sauvignon Blanc in Burgundy
St. Bris, formerly Sauvignon de St. Bris – In Chablis

Name 3 sub-regions of Bordeaux
Medoc
Graves
Entre Deaux Mers

Name a vin doux naturel (french)
Banyuls
Banyuls Grand Cru
Maury
Muscat de Rivesaltes
Rivesaltes
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
Rasteau

State the grapes of Bourgogne Passe tout Grains.
Pinot Noir and up to 1/3 Gamay.

State the regional AOC for the Rhone.
Cotes du Rhone

Name a fortified wine from the Rhone.
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
Rasteau

Name two AOCs for sweet wine in Bordeaux.
Loupiac
Ste-Croix-Du-Mont
Cadillac
Sauternes
Barsac
Cerons

Name the sparkling wine of Burgundy.
Cremant de Bourgogne

Name a sub-region of Bordeaux with a classification for whites.
Graves and Sauternes.

Name a synonym for Muscadet.
Melon de Bourgogne

Name the lone Premiere Grand Cru of Sauternes.
Chateau d'Yquem
Define Vendage Tardive.
Late Harvest.

State the Noble Grapes of Alsace.
Riesling
Gewurztraminer
Pinot Gris (Tokay d'Alsace)
Muscat
Sylvaner (only from one vineyard - Zoztenburg)

Name the grape of Cahors.
Malbec

Name the important white grapes of Bordeaux.
Semillon
Sauvignon Blanc
Muscadelle

Describe the typical style of Alsace wines.
Mostly white, Dry, Crisp, and more alcohol than their german counterparts.

State the quality levels of french wine.
Vin de Table
Vin de Pays
VDQS
AOC

Name the best soil in chablis.
Kimmeridgian soil and chalk.

Name a sparkling wine AOC of the Loire.
Cremant de Loire
Rose de Loire
Vouvray Mousseaux

What is the viticultural key to the best sweet wines of Bordeaux
Botrytis or "Noble Rot"

 

State what major wine regions surround Sudouest (South-West).
Bordeaux to the north. Spain to the south. Languedoc-Roussilon to the east. Rhone also to the east.

Name the dominant grape for left bank reds.
Cabernet Sauvignon

Name the dominant grape(s) for right bank reds.
Cabernet Franc or Merlot

Name the red varietals allowed in Bordeaux.
Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, and for bonus points Carmenere.

Name two most important AOCs of the right bank.
Pomerol and St. Emilion

Name the top category within the Cru Bourgeois.
Crus Bourgeois Exceptionnel

Name the 1st growths of the Medoc.
Chateau Lafite Rothschild
Chateau Latour
Chateau Margaux
Chateau Mouton Rothschild
Chateau Haut-Brion

Describe the classification of Pomerol.
There is none.


Name the Premier Cru of the Coteaux du Layon.
Coteaux du Layon - Chaume
Appelation Chaume Premier Cru Controlee is how it reads on a label
It is a sweet wine made from Chenin Blanc Grapes.

Name an AOC in Loire known for sweet wines besides Vouvray.
Coteaux du Layon
Chaume Coteaux du Layon

Define Moelleaux.
Botrytis.

What is the soil in Champagne
Chalky Soils.


Describe the style of Eger & name 2 grapes.
A Dark red wine from Hungary Grapes:
Kadarka
Kekfrankos
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Sauvignon
Kekoporto
Merlot

Name 2 grapes of Tokaji.
Furmint
Harslevlu
Muskatoly (Muscat Ottonel)
Oremus

Define Puttonyos.
A 30 Liter Barrel/Scoop. Defines sweetness of a Tokaji based on the number of Puttonyos added to the dry must to create the sweet wine. This ranges from 3 Puttonyos to 6 Puttonyos.

Define Aszu Eszencia.
Means Essence and is the Sweetest style of Tokaji you can have.

Define Suss Reserve.
Sterilized grape juice used to sweeten wines

State why wine can be made at 51deg latitude & how they differ from Alsace.
Due to rivers and planting on South Facing slopes to maximize sunlight. They are generally sweeter and less alcoholic than wines from Alsace.
 

Define Lagar.
A rectangular trough used to stomp the grapes by foot in the Port making process.

What is aguardente?
A neutral grape brandy at 77% alcohol.

State the region and style of Txakoli DO.
Colabria Light and Acidic Reds and Whites.
 

What is the main grape used in Taurasi?
Aglianico

What is the minimum % for varietal wines in Chile?
85%

According to the Spanish Wine Law of 2003, the term añejo refers to a wine that has been aged for how long?
24 months in cask or bottle

Name the two dry styles of varietal Madeira:
Sercial and Verdelho

Eden and Clare Valleys are known for what grape?
Riesling

What is the most widely planted red varietal in Italy?
Sangiovese

Australian appellations are called…
Geographical Indicators (G.I.)

What is the most important growing region of Argentina?
Mendoza            

American wine appellations are referred to as…
American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)                     

What is V.D.N.?
Vin Doux Natural, a sweet wine, fortified, muted fermentation

In which Australian State is the Margaret River GI located?
Western Australia          

In which Australian State is the Limestone Coast GI located?
South Australia

Which Tuscan DOC is famous for its Bordeaux-style blends?
Bolgheri

Define Veraison
Word used by English speakers for that intermediate stage of grape berry development which marks the beginning of ripening, when the grapes change from the hard, green state to their softened and colored form.

Australia's Yarra Valley is known for what grape?
Pinot Noir                         

Where would you find pinotage and what is it?    
South Africa – a blend of Pinot Noir and Cinsault

Which region of New Zealand is gaining a strong reputation for Pinot Noir?
Central Otago

What group of states is the world’s 3rd largest wine producer?
Commonwealth of Independent States

What is the Italian equivalent of the French Vins de Table?
Vino di Tavola

Define Débourbage
French term for settling out solids from must or wine.               

What is Vino Santo?
A sweet passito, oxidized wine from Trentino or Tuscany.

What does the term Grosse Gewächse mean?
Great Growth” term for the top VDP dry wines from regions other than the Rheingau

Which Tuscan DOCG produces sweet red wine from dried grapes?
Elba Aleatico Passito or Aleatico Passito dell’Elba DOCG            

What are the three DOCGs of Campania?
Taurasi, Greco di Tufo and Fiano di Avellino.

What is Mavrodaphne?
A red grape grown in Greece and Eastern Europe

What are the COs of New Zealand’s South Island?
Canterbury, Central Otago, Marlborough and Nelson                    

Name one of the two DOCGs of Marches.
Vernaccia di Serrapatronna and Conero

What was the first DOCa?
Rioja

More than 2/3 of Argentina wine production is located in which viticultural region?
Mendoza

What is the red grape of Piedmont sparkling wine?
Brachetto

What is Marsala?
A fortified wine from Sicily

Rutherglen Liquer Muscat and Liquer Tokay are made from what grapes?
Muscat de Frontignan and Muscadelle                 

What is Chenel and where is it grown?
Cross of Chenin and Trebbiano grown in South Africa.

Name two regional GIs of Victoria.
Gippsland,
Geelong,
Goulburn Valley,
Mornington,
Great Western ,
Milwa,
Mildura                               

Which varietal has Margaret River built it's reputation on?
Cabernet

What are ullages?
Beverages that are not able to be sold  

How are Vin de liqueurs made?
By adding grape spirit to unfermented grape must

What are Mistelles?
Vin de liqueurs

Name 3 American rootstocks
Vitis rupestris
Vitis Riparia
Vitis berlandieri              

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ARGENTINA

Mendoza is the largest viticultural area in Argentina, name its regions
Santa Rosa
San Martin
San Rafael
Maipu - E Mendoza
Luian de Cuyo
Uco Valley

Name the sub regions of Argentina
Mendoza
Norte
Occidente
Sandvan
Littoral
Rio Negro
La Pampa
La Rioja
Catamarca
Rio Negro

Name the main grapes of Argentina
Palomino
Malbec
Syrah
Bonardo
Cab Sav
Cab Franc
Merlot
Torrontes
Sav Blanc
Chard
Criolla
Barbera
Pinot Noir

What is Argentina's second most important grape growing area to Mendoza? What are the main grapes?
Salta is the area; Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Torrentes are it's main varietals

What is Argentina's second largest producing area to Mendoza?
San Juan             

What is the most important subregion in Mendoza?
The Uco Valley

What are the 3 important districts within the important subregion of Uco Valley?
Tupugato
San Carlos
Tunuyan

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AUSTRALIA

State the significance of the grape order listed on Australian bottles.
They are listed from highest percent to lowest by law.

State the grape of Penfolds Grange.
Shiraz

Name 3 Australian States.
New South Whales
Victoria
Tasmania
South Australia
Western Australia
Queensland

Name the Australian Super-Zone.
South-Eastern Australia which includes:
Victoria
New South Whales
Part of Queensland
South Australia
Tasmania

Name Australia's legal term for a wine region.
G.I. or Geographical Indication

State the local name for the soil of Coonawarra.
Terra Rossa Soil or "Red Earth"

Name 4 regions within South Australia (13)
Barossa Valley
Coonawarra
Eden Valley
Mclaren Vale
Adelaide Hills
Clare Valley
So Flanders Ranges
Currency Creek
So Fleurieu
Mount Benson
Padthaway
Riverland
Adelaide Plains
South Australia is the largest producing area and has the most popular regions

Name 4 regions in Victoria (19)
Yarra Valley
Geelong
Sunbury
Pyrenees
Glenrowan
Bendigo
Goulburn Valley
Heathcote
Straithbogie Ranges
Upper Goulburn
Alpin Valleys
Beechworth
Rutherglen Grampians
Macedon Ranges
Mornington Peninsula
Henty
Shared w/New South Wales
Murray Darling
Swan Hill

Name the 2 regions in Queensland
Granite Belt
South Burnett

 

Regions in New South Wales (15)
Mudgee
orange
Hunter
Southern Highlands
Perrcoota
Riverna
Cowra
Hastings River
Shoalhaven Coast
Canberra District
Gundagai
Haltops
Tumbarumba
Shared w/New South Wales
Murray Darling
Swan Hill

Name 2 regions in Western Australia (6)
Margaret River
perth Hills
Great Southern
Swan District
Geographe
Blackwood Valley
Peel

If a varietal is stated on an Australian wine, what must be the minimum % of that varietal?
85%

If an origin is stated on an Australian wine, what must be the minimum % grapes from the stated origin
85%

If a vintage is stated on an Australian wine, what must be the minimum % from that stated year?
85%

Which two GIs produce Rhine Riesling at its best?
Clare Valley and Eden Valley                    

Name the 4 Australian Wine Zones
1. Western Australia
2. South Australia
3. Victoria4. New South Wales

What is the center of New South Wale's quality wine production?
Hunter Valley                  

What style of wine is predominant in the northern part of New South Wales?
dry white wine

What are some of the regions of Northern South Wales (7)?
Hasting River
Hunter
Mudgee
Orange
Cowra
Hilltops
Canberra District

The lower part of the Hunter Valley has a reputation for making what kind of wine? (2)
1. Excellent Semillon that can age for 10 years
2. Shiraz that can age for up to 20 years                              

Where is Riverina located and name 2 kind of wines that is known for making
Riverina is located in the lower part of South Wales
1. bulk wine
2. The outstanding De Bertoli Noble 1 dessert wine

Where is Tumbarumba located and what kind of wine is known for making?
Tumbarumba is located in the lower part of South Wales and is producing some of the best sparkling win

What is the largest wine producing state in Australia?
1. South Australia

Name the 8 subappellations in South Australia.
1. Adelaide
2. Barossa
3. Far North
4. Fleurieu
5. Lower Murray
6. Limestone Coast
7. Mount Lofty Ranges
8. The Peninsulars

What are the MOST IMPORTANT regions in South Australia (12)?
1. Barossa Valley
2. Coonawarra Valley
3. Padthaway
4. McLaren Vale
5. Eden Valley
6. Clare Valley
7. Adelaide Hills
8. Langhorne Creek
9. Adelaide Plains
10. Southern Fleurieu
11. Wrattonbully
12. Riverland

Barossa Valley produces some of Australia's best __ (3)
1. Shiraz
2. Cabernet
3. Riesling                          

What is the leading Cabernet Sauvignon region in Australia?
Coonawarra

What is terra rossa and where is it found?
Terra Rossa is a type of soil and is found in Coonawarra

Which subdistrict is Hensche Hill producing wine?
High Eden of Eden Valley in South Australia     

Which zone is Clare Valley and Adelaide Hills located?
Mount Lofty Ranges Zone

The high altitude of Clare Valley and Adelaide Hills helps in making these regions excellent area for what (4)?
Top quality Rieslings, Chardonnay, Cabernet, and Shiraz

What is the icon wine of South Australia?
Penfolds Grange             

Name the two GIs where Pensfold Grange get their grapes, and what is the style of their wine?
1. Barossa and Adelaide
2. High 80s to 100% shiraz with Cabernet Sauvignon making up the rest           

What kind of wine is Victoria known for producing?
sweet Muscat desert wines

What are some of the top GIs in Victoria (6)?
1. Geelong
2. Yarra Valley
3. Mornington Peninsula
4. Goulburn Valley
5. Grampians
6. King Valley

Which GI has established itself as the top Pinot Noir area in Australia?
Yarra Valley

What are two most important GIs for Muscat and Tokay fortified wines?
Rutherglen
Glenrowan

In Australia, Tokay is a synonym for which varietal?
Muscadelle

What are the aging requirements for Rutherglen Muscat and Tokay wines?
Rutherglen Muscat - 2-5 years
Rutherglen Classic Muscat -5-10 years
Rutherglen Grand 10-15 years
Rutherglen Rare -20 years+      

Name 3 important regions in Tasmania
Pipers River region  Tamar Valley  Cole River

What 3 types of wine does Tasmania concentrate on?
Chardonnay    Pinot Noir    Sparkling wines

Name 6 important regions of Western Australia
Great Southern region
Margaret River
Pemberton
Perth Hills
Geographe
Swan Valley

What is the best GI in Western Australia and name the 3 varietals that it specializes.
Margaret River; Chardonany, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Semillon

Name the 3 varietals in which Pemberton specializes.
Chardonnay
Cabernet Sauvignon
Pinot Noir         

Name 2 GIs of Queensland and which one produces higher quality wine
South Burnett
Granite Belt produces higher quality wines

Why was the Southeastern Australia region created?
Created to allow blending across states without breaking the label integrity scheme.

What state is the Margaret River in?
Western Australia

Name 3 States in Australia?
New South Wales
Victoria
Tasmania
Western Australia
Queensland

Who governs the laws about Australian wines?
The Label Integrity Program, similar to the United States AVA: Origin on label must be 85%
 
What are the 12 main grapes of Australia?
Riesling
Semillion
Chard
Sauv Blanc
Marsanne
Viognier
Shiraz
Grenache
Cab Sauv
Cab Franc
Merlot
Pinot Noir

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AUSTRIA   

Name 2 white grapes of Austria.
Gruner Veltliner
Riesling
Sauvignon Blanc
Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc)
Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)
Scheurebe
Chardonnay
Muller-Thurgau

Name 2 red grapes of Austria.
Zweigelt
Blaufrankisch (Lemberger)
St. Laurent
Blauburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Blauer Portugieser
Cabernet Sauvignon
 

Name 2 regions of Austria.
Most Important regions:
Wachau
Kremstal
Other regions:
Kamptal
Traisental
Donauland
Thermenregion
Neuisedlersee-Hugelland
Wien
Wienviertel
Carnuntum
Weinbaugebiet
Neusiedlersee
Mittelbugenland
Sudburgenland

Define Ausbruch.
A sweet botrytis wine that has a sugar level between Beerenauslese and Eiswein.
Made in Austria.

What is Shaumwein (Austria)?
sparkling wine                

What is strohwein (Austria)?
a term for wine made by grapes of Beernauslese level which have been dried on straw mats for a minimum of 3 months.

What are the 4 principal wine regions of Austria?
1. Niederosterreich (L. Austria and Burgenland)
2. Wien (Vienna)
3. Steiermark (Styria)
4. Burgland Osterreich

What are the three "Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus"categories?
Steinfeder
FederSpiel
Smaragd

What are the subregions of the Niederosterreich (7)?
Wienviertal
Traisental
Kremstal
Kamptal
Wachau
Thermenregion
Carnuntum       

What are the subregions of Burgenland?
Neusiedlersee
Neusiedlersee-Hugelland
Mittelburgenland
Sudburgenland                

For what kind of wine is Neusiedlersee renowned?
botrytized wine

How does Lake Neusiedl affect the grapes grown on it's banks?
Causes the grapes to be attacked by Botrytis

Aside from it's outstanding botrytized wines, what other good quality wines are being produced in Neusiedlersee?
Red wines from Zweigelt, Blaufrankisch, and Cabernet Sauvignon
very good Chardonnay

Neusiedlersee-Hugelland is known for what style of wine?
Ausbruch wine

What is the town of Rust known for?
production of Ausbruch wine

What is Ausbruch wine?
wine made by adding fresh grapes to botrytized grapes of TBA qualit

What style of wine is Mittelburgenland and Sudburgenland known for making?
Spicy reds made from Blaufrankisch grapes

What are the 3 subdistricts of Steiermark?
Sud-osteiermark
Sud-steiermark
Weststeiermark

Sud-osteiermark Sud-steiermark produce high quality wines from which varietal(s)?
Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc

What is Switzerland's best known wine?
Dole

What is Dole?
a red wine made from a blend of a minimum 50% Pinot Noir and Gamay

What is the difference between Austrian BA & TBA?
Must weight of 25°KMW for BA and 30°KMW for TBA. TBA from fully botrytized grapes.

What is the largest sub-district within Austria?
Weinviertel                      

The minimum abv of a wine labeled Steinfeder.
10.7% abv                         

The minimum abv of a wine labeled Federspiel.
11.5% abv                         

The minimum abv of a wine labeled Smaragd.       
12% abv                             

Name the 4 major wine regions of Austria
1. Lower Austria (Niederosterreich)
2. Burgenland
3. Styria (Steiermark)
4. Vienna (Wien)

Which country/style would wine be labeled "Ausbruch"?
Austria and slightly more opulent than BA                        

What kind of wine is Burgenland primarily known for? 
Sweet dessert wines, namely Ausbruch

The foremost red varietal in Burgenland.
Blaufrankish    

Name the 3 sub districts of Steiermark      
Sudosteiermark
Susteiermark
Weststeiermark                             

Sudosteiermark and Susteiermark are known to produce what kind of wines?
Hiqh quality white wines from Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc         

Mittelburgenland and Sudburgenlad have a reputation for making what kind of wine?
Spicy reds made from the Blaufrankisch grape.

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CANADA

Winemaking since 1860s
Rapid growth and iprovements since 1980s
Most famous for Niagra Penninsula Ice Wine
Okanagan Valley (B.C.) on the rise
Dry, vinifera wines on the rise
VQA seal of approval

CHILE

Name the main grapes of Chile

Carmenere
Cab Sav
Merlot
Syrah
Chard
Sav Blanc
Riesling
Gewurzt
Malbec
Cab Franc
Pinot Noir
Chard
Moscatel
 

Name the sub regions of Chile
Atacama
Aconcaqua Valley
Casablanca Valley
Maipo Valley
Rapel Valley
Calchaqua Valley
Curico Valley
Maule Valley
Hata Valley
Bio Bio Valley
Valle Sur

Name the region Maipo is within and what wines the area is known for.
Country: Chile - Region: Valle Central
Grapes: Mainly known for Cabernet Sauvignon

State what is unique about the vines from Chile.
Chile has never had phylloxera and as a result has ungrafted 100% vitis vinifera vines.

Name the obscure Bordeaux varietal that is important in Chile.
Carmenere

State the minimum labeling % for varietals in Chile.
75% for varietals, region name and vintage.

What is the reason to be believed why Chili has not been attacked by Phylloxera or oidium?
Isolation caused by the Andes and the Pacific Ocean

Name the 5 viticultural regions of Chile, what are two important ones?
Atacama
Coquimbo
Aconcagua*
Valle Central*
Sur

Elqui Valley and the Limari Valleys are two developing subregions in which region?
Coquimbo in Chile

Name the two subregions of Aconcagua
Valle del Aconcagua and Valle Casablanca

The reputation of Valle del Aconcagua is for what kind/style of wine?
Reputation for producing some of the best Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah of Chile

The reputation of Valle Casablanca is for what kind/style of wine?
Reputation for producing some of the best Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Carmenere of Chile

Vermonte, Caliterra, Errazuriz, and Montes are excellent producers in which region.
Region de Aconcagua

Which region is San Antonio located?
Region de Aconcagua

Which region in Chile produces the most wine?
Region de Valle Central

Name the 4 subregions of Region de Valle Central
Maipo
Rapel
Maule
Curico

60% of plantings in the Maipo Valley are of which varietal?
Cabernet Sauvignon

Rapel Valley has a reputation for producing top wines out of which 2 varietals?
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot

Which is Chile's largest wine region and what it's better produced varietals?
Maule Valley; Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Carmenere

Where are Lontue and Toro located?
Curico Valley in Valle Central

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FRANCE

Random Questions
Alsace
Bordeaux
Burgundy
The Loire
The Rhone
SouthWest
Random Questions

Name some Bordeaux lookalikes in the Southwest
Bergerac (Sec, Côtes de, Côtes de Moelleux),
Buzet (Côtes de)
Côtes de Duras
Côtes du Marmandais
Montravel (Côtes de, Haut)
Monbazillac Montravel (Côtes de, Haut)
Monbazillac
Pecharment
Rosette

What are the Grand Cru villages of Vallee de la Marne?
AŸ and Tours

What is the minimum abv for Cote-Rotie, St. Joseph and Crozes-Hermitage?
10%                     

Mazoyeres-Chambertin is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Grand Cru, Gevrey-Chambertin               

Les Petits Epenots is a Premier Cru or Grand Cru? In what AOC?
Premier Cru, Pommard

Name 5 great Champagne vintages
1982, 1985, 1988, 1995, 1996

Name 10 great Bordeaux vintages
1982, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2005  

What is the Tête de Cuvée or Prestige Cuvée of Perrier-Jouet?
La Belle Epoque              

What are the primary white grapes of Bandol?
Bourbolenc, Ugni and Clairette

Name 4 VDN of the Languedoc-Roussillon.
Maury,
Banyuls,
Banyuls Grand Cru,
Grand Roussillon,
Muscat de Frontignan,
Muscat de St. Jean de Minervois,
Muscat de Lunel,
Muscat de Miravel

Mise en bouteille au chateau (Bordeaux)
The wine was bottled at the chateau named on the bottle

Mise en bouteille au domaine (Burgundy)
The wine was bottled on the estate or domaine

Mise en bouteille dans nos caves
The wine was bottled in the cellars, usually those of the negocient who will be named

Mise en bouteille par XYZ
Wine was bottled by the company or person XYZ

What is limousin?
The type of oak in which Bordeaux barriques are made out of

The Côte-des-Blancs is a wine producing district found in?
Champagne                       

What is Gentil and where can it be found?
Gentil is found in Alsace -blend of 2 or more grape varieties BUT must contain a minimum of 50% Riesling, Gewurz, Pinot Gris, or Muscat

What is the only AOC that allows Chardonnay in Alsace?
Cremant d'Alsace           

What is the principal grape of Rose’ de Riceys?
Pinot Noir

Name the three sub-regions of Armagnac
Bas-Armagnac, Haut-Armagnac, Tenareze        

Who fixes the price of Champagne grapes every year?
The CIVC or Comite Interprofessional du vin de Champagne

How long must a non-vintage champagne be aged (min) before release?
18 months

What is the main grape in Gigondas, and what is the max % allowed
Grenache 80%

Define Ouillage
French word meaning both ullage and topping up.        

What is Maury?
Appellation in Roussillon making fortified wine from min 75% Grenache

Define Pigeage
French term for punching down the cap of grape skins and other solids.

Define Soutirage
French term for racking, or moving clear wine off its sediment and into a clean container. It can also be used for the wine serving process of decanting.

Describe the characteristics of Bourgueil.
A red wine made of Cabernet Franc with up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon. Fragrant, Medium to light body, Light tannin

What is the widely planted grape in Champagne?
Pinot Meunier 

What style of wines are produced in Reuilly?
Whites - Sauvignon Blanc
Red and Rose - Pinot Noir

ALSACE
Bordered by the Vosges Mountains on the West and Germany’s Rhein River to the East, Alsace is one of France’s most picturesque wine regions. The wines of Alsace are predominantly dry whites that offer rich, pure varietal fruit with a pronounced earth/mineral character. Fifty-one Grand Cru vineyards top the region’s hierarchy of quality.

Background
Concentrated, full-bodied dry white wines
Purity of fruit and terroir
New oak rarely used
Wines labeled by grape variety

Climate
Dry with war, sunny summers
Rain Shadow effect

Soils: Large mix due to rift valley georgraphy
Granite
Chalk
Sandstone
Loam
Alluvial
Volcanic

Geographical boundaries
Vosges Mountains
Rhine River

Regions:
Bas Rhin (South
Haut Rhin (North)
Tremendous diversity of soil types.

Primary Grape Varieties:
Noble Varieties
   Riesling
   Gewurztraminer
   Muscat
   Pinot Gris (Tokay d’Alsace)
   Sylvaner planted in Zotenberg vineyard

Other Varieties
   Pinot Blanc
   Auxerrois
   Sylvaner
   Chasselas
   Chardonnay
   Pinot Noir

Appelations
Alsace AOC
(1962)
Alsace Grand Cru (1983)
   51 Grand Crus (51st Grand Cru as of 1/12/07)
   Noble Varieties only
   Quality criteria
Cremant d’Alsace AOC (1976)

Late-Harvest Wines & Terms
Vendange Tardive
(VT)
   Late-harvest wines
   Rich, full-bodied in style
   Not necessarily sweet
Selection de Grains Noble (SGN)
   Dessert wines from botrytis fruit
Edelzwicker: Blended carafe wine
______________________________

Minimum alcohol content for AC Alsace
8.5% abv

The minimum alcohol content of Alsace Grand Cru
11% abv                             

Name the permitted varietals used for Alsace AC
Riesling, Gewurz, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Muscat, Sylvaner, Pinot Noir, and Chasselas

What is Klevener de Heiligenstein and where is it from?
The Alsace wine made from the savagnin rose grape                        

Where is Sylvaner a permitted varietal for Grand Cru classification?
Zolzenberg        

BORDEAUX  
Bordeaux is the home to some of the most expemsive, famous and sought after wine in the world. Though its very best examples account for less than 5% of the region’s total wine output, it remains the standard bearer for wines of its type.

General Background
Largest Appellation Controlee region in France
Over 250,000 acres of vineyards
54 Appelations – 10,000 producers
Bordeaux Rouge and Bordeaux Superieur account for 45% of total production

Terms
Chateau: Estate under single ownership – size varies with purchase or sale of vineyard (Ch. Petrus has increased by 50% since 1969

Negociant: An agent who purchases fruit or wine in barrel, than ages it in their own cellar

En Primeur Sales: (Futures) Early release of wines for sale

Soils:
Medoc and Northern Graves: gravel
St. Emilion: gravel over limestone
Pomerol: iron pan under sand and clay

White grapes of Bordeaux (dry and sweet)
Sav Blanc
Semillon
Muscadelle de Bordelais

Red grapes of Bordeaux
Cab Sauv
Merlot
Malbec (Cot)
Cab Franc
Petit Verdot

Typical Bordeaux Blends
Medoc communes (left bank)
   70% Cab Sav and 30% Merlot and minor varieties
St. Emilion and Pomerol (right bank
   70% Merlot and 25% Cab Franc

Medoc General
Largest appellation in Bordeaux
Originally marshlands drained in the 18century
Two sub appellations
   Haut (upper) Medoc
   Medoc
Red wines predominate

Medoc Classifications of 1855
Ranked 61 properies in the Medoc (one in Graves) – commissioned by Emperor Napoleon III for the Universal Exhibition in Paris

Wines ranked by price and categoried into first through fifth growths:
1st Crus       5
2nd Crus     14
3rd Crus     14
4th Crus     10
5gh Crus   18
Graves (except Haut-Brion) and Saint Emilion are not included


Name the orignal 1855 first growths of Haut- Medoc (there are 4)
Haut Brion
Lafite Rothschild
Latour
Margaux
(Chateau Moutin-Rothschild was promoted from 2nd to 1st Cru in 1973)

St. Estephe
Northernmost commune of the Haut Medoc
Wines are generally sturdy and full-bodied
Five classified growths including the (Super seconds) 2nd growths Chateaux Cos d’Estournel and Montrose

Pauillac
Considered to be the epitome of “claret”
Wines balance power and finesse
Three 1st growths: Ch. Latour, Lafite-Rothschild, Mouton Rothschild

Name the sweet wine regions of Bordeaux
Sauternes
Barsac

Name 4 second crus of Bordeaux Chateau Boyd Cantenac
Cos d'Estournel
Ducru Beaucaillou
Durfort Vivens
Gruard Larose
Lascombes
Leoville Barton
Leoville Las Cases
Leoville Poyferre
Montrose
Pichon Longueville
Pichon Longueville Comtesse
Rausan Gassies
Rausan Segla

Name Pomerol's leading Estates
(not classified ever)
CH Petrus
CH Certan-dormay
CH l'Evangile
CH Lafleur
CH Petite Village
Vieux CH Certan
CH Le Bon Pasteur
CH Clinet
Clos Rene
CH l'Eglise Clinet
CH la Consellante
CH Latour a Pomerol
CH Trotanoy
CH Beauregard
CH Certtan Giraud
CH l'Eglise
CH la Croix de Gay
CH Gazin

List 4 fifth growths of Bordeaux (18)
CH Lynch-Bages
CH Clerc-Milon
CH du Tertre
CH Pontet-Canet
CH Batailley
CH Haut Batailley
CH Grand-Puy-Lacoste
CH Lynch-Moussas
CH Dauzac-Labarde
CH d'armaillhac
CH Haut-Bages-Liberal
CH Pedesclaux
CH Belgrave
CH de Camensac
CH Cos-labory
CH Croizet-Bages
CH Cantemerle

Name 4 third growths
CH Lagrange
CH Langoa-Barton
CH Palmer
CH Calon-Segur
CH Marquis d'Alejm & Becker
CH Ferriere
CH Desmirail
CH La Lagune
CH Boya-Cantenac
CH Cantenac-Brown
CH Malescot-st-exupery
CH Giscours-Laborde
CH d'issan-Cantenac
CH Kirwan-Cantenac

Name 3 fourth growths
CH Duhart-Milon-Rothschild
CH Pouget
CH Talbot
CH Saint-Pierre
CH Brainaire-Ducru
CH La Tour Corret
CH Beychevelle
CH Prieure-Lichine
CH Marquis-de terme

Name the four satellites of St. Emilion.
Montagne-St. Emilion,
Lussac-St. Emilion,
Puisseguin-St. Emilion,
St George-St.Emilion.

Château Latour is within what AOC? What commune? What Growth?
Pauillac AOC, Pauillac, 1st Growth        

The type of wine of Lalande de Pomerol AC
Good quality red wines

What is the abv for Sauternes and Barsac?
13% ABV           

The type of wine of Lalande de Pomerol AC
Good quality red wines

The type of wine of Cerons AC          
sweet wines

The type of wine of Loupiac
similar but lesser sweet wines than Sauternes that must contain some botrytized grapes

The type of wine of Ste-Croix-du-Mont
similar but lesser sweet wines than Sauternes that must contain some botrytized grapes         

The styles of Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux AC wines
RW in the North
med-dry to dry in the Centre     sweet WW in the South

The style of Entre-Deux-Mers AC wines
ordinary quality RWs and WWs

The style of Ste-Foy-Bordeaux AC wines
Sweet and dry WWs

The style of Fronsac and Canon Fronsac AC wines              
fruity red wines in the style of Pomerol of a slightly lower quality

The style of Bourg AC wine
average to good quality RWs

The style of Blaye AC wines
average dry WWs

What does "mis en bouteille au Chateau" mean?
In Bordeaux, it means that the wine was bottled at the the chateax winery.

How long are wines from the Medoc left in oak casks?
1 1/2 to 2 years              

Name the second wine produced by the following
1. Chateau Latour            Chateau Latour -Les Forts de Latour
2. Chateau Lafite              Chateau Lafite - Carruades de Lafite
3. Chateau Haut-Brion   Chateau Bahans Haut-Brion
4. Chateau Margaux        Pavillon Rouge du Chateau Margaux     

What does the River Ciron contribute to the wines of its bordering areas?
Humidity, which aids in attracting Botrytis to the vines in Sauternes.

BURGUNDY

Name the AOCs of Chablis:
Blanchot
Bougros
Les Clos
Grenouilles
La Montonne
Les Preuses
Valmur
Vandesir

Name two Grand Cru vineyards in
Chambolle-Musigny in the Cotes de Nuits:
Musigny and Bonnes Mares

Name two Grand Cru vineyards in the Cotes de Beaune:
Le Montrachet
Corton-Charlemagne
Corton Bâtard-Montrachet Bienvenues-Bâtard-Montrachet Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet Chevelier-Montrachet

Where are the communes of Mercurey, Ruilly & Givry
Cote Challonnais, part of the Cote de Beune

Name the Cru of Beaujolais
Chenas
Fleurie
Brouilly
Julienas
Chiroubles
Cote de Brouilly
Morgon
Moulin-a-vent
Regnie
St Amour

What is Cote de Beaune's sole Grand Cru?
Aloxe Cortone

Name the Sub-Regions of Burgundy.
Cote de Nuits
Cote de Beaune
Cote Chalonnaise
Macconais
Beaujolais
Chablis (Though it is closer to champagne it is considered part of burgundy)

Name the grape of Beaujolais.
Gamay

Name the major red grape of Burgundy.
Pinot Noir.

Name the most famous AOC of the Maconais.
Macon

Define Marl soil.
A calcareous soil.

Name the still wine regional AOC of Burgundy.
Burgogne

Name the most famous AOC of the Cote Chalonnaise.
Mercurey

Name 2 villages of the Cote de Beaune
Pommard
Montrachet
Volnay
Meursault
Aloxe Corton

Name 5 grape varietals allowed in Burgundy
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Gamay
Sav Blanc
Aligote

Name 3 Grand Cru of Chablis
Les Clos (The Closed)
Valmur
Blanchot
Bougros
Grenouilles
Les Preuses
Vaudesir

Name 4 AOC of the Maconnais Macon
St-Veran
Pouiily Fuisse
Pouilly Vinzelles
Macon Villages
Macon Solutre
Macon Lugny 

What are the 8 Grand Crus of Vosne-Romanne (They are in Burgundy in the Cote de Nuits)
La Romanne
La Romanne Conti
Romanne-Saint-Vivant
La Tache
Richebourg
La Grand Rue
Echezaux
Grands Echezaux 

Name the Grand Crus of Puligny Montrachet
Batard-Montrachet
Le Montrachet
Chevalier-Montrachet
Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet
Criots-Batard-Montrachet

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CHAMPANGE
What are the size bottles that Champagne comes in above a Litre?
Magnum = 2B
Jeroboam = 4B
Rehoboam = 6B (extinct)
Methuselah = 8B
Salmanzar = 12B
Balthazar = 16B
Nebuchadnezzar = 20B

Name the grapes of Champagne
Chardonnay
Pinot Noir
Pinot Meunier

Define Methode Traditionelle
2nd fermentation in this bottle Meaning the 2nd fermentation takes place in the bottle that is sold to you.

Define Riddling
Riddling is the process of turning the bottles sharply and slowly increasing their downward angle to make the lies and sediment pool in the neck of the bottle.

State the difference between Extra Brut and Extra Dry
Extra Brut has no sugar added during dosage. Extra Dry is a sweeter level that was created for marketing to US and English customers.

Define Tete de Cuvee
It is the producers best blend in Champagne.

State the minimum sur lie aging for NV Champagne.
18 months

State the minimum sur lie aging for Vintage Champagne.
3 years

Define the term for adding sugar just prior to corking.
Dossage.

Define Blanc de Noirs
White of Darks meaning Black grapes only so the champagne therefore contains only pinot noir or pinot meunier

Define Blanc de Blancs
White of Whites meaning white grapes only.

What are the districts of Champagne and which one only grows Chardonnay?
Montagne de Riems
The Aube
Valloe de la Marne
Cote de Sezanne
Cote de Blanc - only Chard 

Define Remontage
French word for various systems of pumping over, circulating liquid in the fermentation vessel through the cap of grape solids during red wine fermentation.   

Define Foulage
French for the wine-making operation of crushing grapes.

Define Macération Pelliculaire
French term for the prefermentation maceration of white grapes known as skin contact.

Define Dégorgement
French term for the disgorgement operations at the end of the traditional method of sparkling wine-making entailing the removal of a pellet of frozen sediment from the neck of each bottle.

Define Encépagement
Widely used French term for the mix of vine varieties planted on a particular property.

What is the most Northerly wine region in France?
Champagne

Name the 5 areas that Champagne is divided.
Montagne de Reims
Vallee de la Marne
Cote des Blanc
Cote de Sezanne
Aube

Which two areas in Champagne are most black grapes grown?
Montagne de Reims and Vallee de la Marne

Which two areas in Champagne is most Chardonnay grown?
Cote des Blancs and Cote Sezanne          

Name the only three methods of pruning allowed in Champagne
Guyot simple and double
Chablis
Cordon de Royat

What is the name of the vineyard grading system in Champagne?
echelle

Explain what CM means on a Champagne bottle.
CM means that the champagne has been made by a co-operative
cooperative that makes and sells Champagne under one or more brands that it owns

Explain what NM means on a Champagne bottle.
NM means that the wine has been sold under the House which made it
-traditionally referred to as a "house". Ex: Bollinger &Louis Roederer

Explain what RM means on a Champagne bottle.
RM means that the champagne is produced by a grower from their own grapes
-known as grower-producer or grower for short

Explain what RC means on a Champagne bottle.
RC means that the grower delivers grapes to a cooperative and in part or full payment, receives back ready made champagne

Explain what MA means on a Champagne bottle.
MA means a brand name owned by the purchaser such as a restaurant, supermarket, or wine merchant

Explain what SR means on a Champagne bottle.
SR means that a publicly registered firm set up by two or more growers, often related-who share premises to make and market their Champs under more than one brand

Explain what NR means on a Champagne bottle.
NR stands for Negocient-Distributeur which is a company that sells on champagne it did not make, to others who then retail it

What does the standard size press hold in Champagne? (kg)D
2550 liters

What is the definition of vin de cuvee?
the first 2050 liters of the main champagne pressing

What is the definition of premier taille?
the final 500 liters of the main pressing in champagne wine production

What is the significance of assemblage in Champagne?
the hallmark or style of each champagne house

Who is credited with inventing la methode champenoise? (name and abbey)
Dom Perignon, cellar master at the Abbey in Hautvillers

Who is credited with inventing and developing the remuage process?
Madame Nicole -Barbe Cliquot-Ponsardin

What is remuage?
Remuage is the movement of sediment of dead yeasts cells caused by the second fermentation.

What is the other name that dosage is sometimes called?
liqueur d'expedition

Name two high quality rose producers in Champagne.
Gatinois and Paul Dethume

What is the primary varietal of Montagne de Reims and what are its Grand Cru Villages(9)?
Pinot Noir;
Ambonnay
Bouzy
Verzy
Verzenay
Louvois
Mailly
Sillery
Beaumont-sur-Vesle
Puisieux

What is the primary varietal of the Cotes des Blancs and what are its Grand Cru Villages(6)?
Chardonnay;
Mesnil-sur-Oger
Oger
Oiry
Chouilly
Cramant
Avize

What is the primary varietal of the Vallé de la Marne and what are its Grand Cru Villages(2)?
Pinot Munier;
Äy
Tours-sur-Marne

What is the primary varietal of the Côtes de Sézanne?
Chardonnay

What is the primary varietal of the Aube?
Pinot Noir

What is the only AC wine that permits the method of production for rose wine by blending red and white wines together?
Rose champagne

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Bollinger?
Grand Annee

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Krug (2)?
Krug Collection
Grand Cuvee (non-vintage)

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Laurent Perrier?
Grand Siecle (non-vintage)

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Louis Roederer?
Cristal

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Moet & Chandon?
Dom Perignon

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Perrier Jouet?
Belle Epoque

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Pol Roger?
Winston Churchill

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Pommery?
Cuvee Louise

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Ruinart?
Dom Ruinart

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Taittinger?
Comtes de Champagne

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Veuve Cliquot?
La Grande Dame                             

What is the Cuvee de Prestige of Jacquesson?
Grand Signature

What is liqueur de tirage?
Measured quantities of liquid sugar, yeast, and a little tannin that produce a second fermentation in the bottle

How long do non-vintage champagnes mature on their lees?
Minimum of 15 months from the date of bottling

How long do vintage champagnes mature on their lees?
3 years from the date of bottling

What are the two methods of disgorgement?
the traditional method a la volee and the modern method, a la glace

What is the a la glace method?
Placing the bottle necks into a shallow trough containing freezing mixture which will freeze a small pellet of wine below the sediment

What is dosage?
The measured amount of sweetened wine that replaces the wine lost at degorgement

What determines the style of the wine that is made into Champagne?
The % of sugar syrup in the dosage

What is another name for dosage?
liqueur d'expedition

What are the 6 styles of Champagne from driest to sweetest?
Brut naturelle
Brut
Extra Sec
Sec
Demi-sec
Doux, rich

What is the difference between Petillant and Perlant wines?
Petillant means slightly sparkling and Perlant means very lightly sparkling

THE LOIRE
Name the appellations of Touraine (There are five: two of them are famous for Cab Franc and one is famous for Chenin Blanc)

Bourgueil (Cab Franc)
Chinon (Cab Franc)
Cheverney
Touraine
Vouvray (Chenin Blanc)
 

Name an AOC of Pays Nantais and the grape (Eastern part of The Loire)
Muscadet de Sevre - Muscadet
Muscadet sur lie - Muscadet
Think of a grape with the town in its title
 
Name the appellations of the Central Vineyards or Cote de Gien (This is in The Loire and they are all famous for Sav Blanc)
Pouilly Fume
Quincy
Sancerre

What are some of the appellations of Anjou-Saumur in The Loire?
Anjou
Savenierres
 
Name the main regions of the Loire Valley
Pays Nantais
Anjou Saumur
Touraine
The Central Vineyards or Cotes de Gien

Name the sub districts of the Central vineyards (5)
Sancerre
Pouilly-sur Loire
Menetou-Salon
Quincy
Reuilly

Pouilly-sur Loire produces two AC white wines, what are they and what is the difference?
Pouilly Fume - made from Sauvignon Blanc
Pouilly-sur Loire - made from Chesselas

Name the sub districts of Touraine (7)
Vouvray
Montlouis
Jasnieres
Bourgeil
Chinon
Coteaux du Loir
Cheverny                           

Name the sub districts of Anjou (4)
Anjou
Saumur
Savennieres
Coteaux-du-Layon

What is the style of the best wines from Saumur?
Cremant de Loire AC - Dry sparkling wines made from Chenin Blanc plus a maximum of 20% Chardonnay

What is the outstanding wine made in Coteaux du Layon?
Sweet white dessert wine made from Chenin Blanc

Name the two AOCs in Coteaux du Layon known for making high quality sweet dessert wine
Quarts de Chaume and Bonnezeaux

What style of wine does Savennieres make and what are the two ACs within that produces this style?
Dry white wine from Chenin Blanc
Coulee-de-Serrant
La Roche-aux-Moines

THE RHONE
State the difference between Northern and Southern Rhone red wines.
North: Single grape allowed is Syrah
(In some areas they do allow the addition of some white varietals)
South: Blend of any of 23 grapes including Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah.

Name an AOC for red wines from the Southern Rhone.
Chateauneuf-du-Pape
Gigondas
Vacqueyras
Cotes du Rhone
Cotes du Rhone Villages
Lirac
Rasteau

Name 3 Cotes du Rhone villages
Chucsulan
Cairanne
Laudu
Roaix
Vinsobres
Ventoux
Rocheoude
Rousset-les-vignes
Sablet
St-Gervais
St-Maurice
St-Pantaleon
Segret
Valreas

Name the appellations of Northern Rhone (there are eight)
Condrieu
Cote Rotie
CH Grillet
Cotes du Rhone
Hermitage
St Joseph
Crozes Hermitage
St Peray
Cornas

Name the appellations of Southern Rhone (there are eight)
Chateauneuf du Pape
Gignondas
Lirac
Tavel
Rasteau
Muscat de Beaumes
Vacqueyras
Cotes-du-Rhones

Name the 13 grapes allowed in Chateneuf de Pape in order of importance
Grenache
Syrah
Mouvedre
Cinsaut
Clairette (blanc)
Bobulenc (blanc)
Picpoul
Counoise
Terret Noir
Vacarese
Muscardin
Picardin Blanc

 

What 2 Cote du Rhone villages have seperate AOC for their sweet wines?
Beaumes de Venice
Rasteau for Rancio

Name two villages in the Cotes de Nuits
Gevrey Chambertin
Nuits-St-Georges
Fixin
Marsannay
Vosne Romanee

Where are Vienna and Avignon located?
Rhone

Where are gallettes found and how are they beneficial?
Cote de Rhone and they are beneficial because they help to drain the ground, act as storage heaters to warm the vines, and prevent soil from drying out.

Name one of the top estates of Cote de Rhone
Chateau Beaucastel, Chateau Rayas

What is the only French AC for rose wines exclusively?
Tavel   

Name two white wine-producing appellations of the Northern Rhone Valley.
Chateau Grillet,
Condrieu,
Croze Hermitage,
Hermitage, St Peray,
St Joseph.

SOUTHWEST

What style of wine is Monbazillac?
A sweet french wine comprised of Semillon, Sav Blanc and Muscadelle. It is similar to Sauternes
and is made on the SW slopes opposite Bergerac

Describe the types and style of wines produced in Bergerac AC.
Dry reds produced from Cabernet and Merlot
Whites from SB and Semillon similar in style to Sauternes

Describe Bergerac Sec.
Dry white wines made from Semillon and SB

Describe the types and style of wines produced in Pecharment AC
Dry wines produced from the Bordeaux red grapes that can age up to 10 years

Describe the types and style of wines produced in Monbazillac
The wines are similar in style to Sauternes but of a much lower quality.                            

Describe the type and style of wine produced in Cahors AC
Dry reds made from Malbec     

What kind of wines are produced in Gaillac AC (generally)?
Dry reds, whites, roses, and sparkling wines made mostly from local varietals.

What kind of wine does Madiran AC produce?
Dry red made from a blend of up to 40-60% Tannat

Name 5 VDNs of the Languedoc/Roussillon and their styles
Banyuls AC -Red, R, W
Banyuls Grand Cru AC-Red, R, W
Maury AC-Red, R, W
Rivesaltes AC-Red, R, W
Muscat de Rivesaltes ONLY rose or white

NORTHEAST
Describe and name the two notable wines produced in Jura AC.
Chateau-Chalon - a vin jaune produced from Flor development on Savignin and aged for 6 years.

Vin de Paille - Sweet wine produced from grapes that have been left out to dry on wicker before fermentation

Name and generally describe a notable AC in Savoie
Roussette de Savoie is a dry white produced from a local varietal                         

Jurancon AC most notably produces what kind of wine
an excellent spicy sweet dessert wine high in alcohol

VDNs 
How are VDNs produced?
VDNs are produced by adding neutral spirit to fermenting must to arrest the fermentation and raising the alcohol level to 15-18 percent abv.

Name 8 VDNs and their general locations.
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise (Vaucluse in Cotes-du-Rhone)
Muscat de Rivesaltes (Roussillon)
Rivesaltes (Roussillon)
Muscat de Frontignan (Languedoc)
Muscat de Setubal (Terras Do Sado)
Maury (Roussillon)
Banyuls (South of France)
Rasteau (Southern Rhone)

How are VDLs produced?
VDNs are produced by adding grape spirit to must before any fermentation has taken place. Alcohol level is around 16-17 percent abv.

What is another name for VDLs?
Mistelle               

Name 4 VDLs and the grape spirit used for their production.
Pineau des Charentes – Cognac
Floc de Gascogne –Armagnac
Ratafia de Champagne - Marc de Champagne
Australia's muscats and Tokays - Muscadelle wines                     
Where are Riquewihr and Ribeauville located?
Alsace  

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GERMANY 

State the grape that Spätburgunder is a synonym for
Pinot Noir

State the grape that Weissburgunder is a synonym for
Pinot Blanc

State the grape that Grauburgunder is a synonym for
Pinot Gris

Define Müller-Thurgau
A Riesling X Chasselas Cross

Define Liebfraumilch and state where it is commonly found.
(Means Milk of our Lady) Cheap fruity blended wines from Rheinhessen and Pfalz

Define Bocksbeutel and state where it is commonly found.
A Pear/Flask shaped bottel used in the Franken region of Germany.

Define edelfaule.
Noble Rot or Botrytis

Name any 1 anbaugebiete that is important for red wines.
Rheingau
Ahr Valley
Baden
Wurttemberg

Name 4 of Germany's main regions
Mosel-saar-ruwer
Pfalz
Rheingau
Baden
Franken
Wurttemberg
Ahr
Nahe
Rheinhessen
Hessesche-Bergstrasser

Name 3 important Anbaugebiet out of the 13
(one of the four levels of geographic classification referring to a “wine growing region”, and which is always used on the label of QbA and Prädikatswein wine: The other three are

   -Bereich, district, of which there are 39. Each Anbaugebiet is divided into one or more Bereiche.

   -Großlage, about 170 collective sites, which is a collective name for a number of single vineyards

   -Einzellage, about 2,600 single vineyards

Mosel-Saar-ruwer
Rhingau
Pfalz
Rheinhaussen
Mitterhein
Ahr
Nahe
Franken
Baden
Wurttemburg
Sachsen
Salle-Uhstrut
Hessische-Bergstrasse
 

Define and name 4 of them (Regions of Germany)
Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
Rheingau
Rheinhessen
Pfalz
Ahr Valley
Nahe
Franken
Mittelrhein
Baden
Wurttemberg
Hessische
Bergtrasse
Saal-Unstrut
Sachsen

State the 4 quality levels of German wine.
Tafelwein - Table Wine
Landwein - Regional Wine
QbA - Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete
QmP - Qualitatswein mit Pradikat

State the 6 Pradikat levels for QmP wines from driest to sweetest.
Kabinett
Spatlese
Auslese
Beerenauslese (BA)
Eiswein
Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)

Define Erstes Gewachs.
1st Growth

Define Halbtrocken and Trocken.
Half Dry and Dry

Define Sekt.
Sparkling Wine

Primary White Varietals
Riesling
Muller Thurgau
Silvander
Scheurebe
Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc)
Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)

Primary Red Varietals
Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Dornfelder
Portugieser

Wine Classifications
Tafelwein:
Table Wine
Landwein: Regional Wine
Qualitatswein bestimmter Arbaugebiete (QbA): Quality wine from one of the 13 major regions
Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP): Quality wine detrmined by the degree of ripeness at harvest
- Only classifiation that cannot be chaptalized
- Six pradikate or levels of quality ranging from driest to sweetest

QmP Pradikat
Kabinett Wine - Least ripe

Spatlese wine - Late-gathered grapes left on the vine to ripen                              

Auslese wines - Selected individual bunches of grapes left on the vine to become over-ripe

Beerenauslese (BA) wines - Specially selected grapes chosen from the ripest bunches which have been effected by Edelfaule                           

Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) wines -Dried up, selected grapes affected by Edelfaule which have been left to shrivel on the vine

The temperature at which grapes used to make Eiswein are picked.
18 F

Mosel Valley: Middle Mosel
-Riesling is king
-Very steep vineyards
-South or SW aspect
-Slate soils
-Long growing season
-Wine styles
   Delicacy
   Purity of fruit
   Racy acidity
   Terroir
   Low Alcohol
   Ageworthy

Rheingau
Riesling & Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Wine styles
   Richer wines than Mosel
   Great aging potential
   Trocken (dry) wines important
   Erstes Gewachs (first growths)

Rheinhessen
Muller Thurgau/Silvander/Riesling/Scheurebe
Diversity of soil types and grape varieties
Quality extremes
Land of Liebfraumilch
Nackenheimer Rothenberg – one of Germany’s great vineyards

Pfalz
Riesling/Scheurebe/Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)/Muller Thurgau/Spatburgunder
Also called the Palatinate
Warmer Climate
Great diversity of soil types
Trocken (dry) wines important – Grosses Gewachs (first growths)

Other Notable Anbaugebieten

Ahr Valleyy
Predominantly red wines from Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir) and Portugieser
Volcanic slate soil

Nahe
Best wines from Riesling
Area around Schlossbockelheim and Bad Kreuznach

Franken (Franconia)
Silvander/Riesling/Muller Thurgau
Wines traditionally bottled in bocksbeutel

Which regions of Germany can legally produce Liebfraumilch?
Rheingau, Rheinhesse, Pfalz and Nahe                 

What is Weissherbst?
German for "white autumn" or "white harvest." It originally referred to red grapes that had lost their color because of Edelfaüle (botrytis cinerea). Today Weissherbst refers to rosé wines produced from a single grape variety and of at least qualitätswein quality. The best-known wines of this type are made from Spätburgunder (pinot noir) in Germany's baden and württemberg regions. A rosé wine from Baden

What are the two most important varietals in Hessische Bergstrasse?
Riesling and Muller-Thurgau

What is the most important grape of Saale-Unstrut?
Muller-Thurgau

Schlossneuenburg is the most important and largest Bereich in which anbaugebiete?
Saale-Unstrut

What is the most important grape of Sachsen?
Muller-Thurgau                              

Which anbaugebiete is noted for its Schillerwein production?
Wurteemberg                  

What is Schillerwein?
Rose wine (Germany)

What are the main varietals of Wurttemberg?      
Red Trollinger, Lemberger, Schwarzriesling (Meunier)

What's the difference between Deutscher Sekt and sekt?
Deutscher Sekt is sparkling wine made from German grapes. sekt is sparkling wine produced in germany from imported wine that may or may not be blended with German wine.

What is fleubereinigung?
relocation of vineyards to improve accessibility to vines

Define Spatlese (German)
grapes that are selectively picked at least 7 days after the main harvest starts for that specific variety

Define Auslese (German)
specially selected, perfectly ripened bunches of grapes that are hand-picked and then pressed separately from other grapes.

Define Beerenauslese (German)
specially selected, overripe grapes that are hand-picked and then pressed separately from other grapes           

Define Trockenbeerenauslese (German)
specially selected, overripe grapes that are left on the vine until nearly dry and picked one by one

Which Anbaugebiete is Assmanshausen located?
Rheingau            

Define Kabinett (German)
Kabinett wines must contain minimum amounts of natural sugar depending on the region/variety

What is the main varietal of the Rheingau?
Riesling

Where is Bereich Johannisberg located?
Rheingau                            

What are the two best single vineyards of the Rheingau?
Schloss Johannisberg and Schloss Volrads

What are and where are Bingen, Nierstein, and Wonnegau located
Bereichs in Rheinhessen                             

What's the main grape varietal of Rheinhessen?
Muller-Thurgau

What are the best wines produced in Rheinhessen?
Riesling                               

What is the main wine produced in Rheinhessen?
Liebfraumilch 

What is Liebfraumilch (3)?
-blended QbA wine from the Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Pfalz, or Nahe
-must contain 70% of Riesling, Muller-Thurgau, Silvaner, or Kerner
-semi-sweet     

What's the largest region in terms of land mass in Germany?
Rheinhessen     

What's the largest producing region in Germany?
Pfalz    

Where is Bereich Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse?
Pfalz

What is the most planted varietal in Pfalz?
Muller-Thurgau

The best wines of the Pfalz come from a few villages (8). Name 4
Bad Durkheim
Deidesheim
Forst
Kallstadt
Neustadt

Wachenheim
Ungstein

What is the most planted varietal in Nahe?
Riesling

Nahatel is the single Bereich in which Anbaugebiete?
Nahe

What are the two most important towns in Nahe?
Bad Kreuznach and Schloss Bockelheim

Which Anbaugebiete is divided into three Bereichs: Maindreieck, Mainviereck and Steigerwald?
Franken

What is the most planted varietal in Franken?
Muller-Thurgau

Which varietal produces the best Franken wine?
Silvaner

The best Franken wines are produced from vineyards around which town?
Wurzberg

What are the names of two outstanding vineyards in Franken?
Stein and Leiste

Where are the Bereichs of Bernkastel, Burg, and Cochem located?
Mosel

Where is the Bereich of Moseltor located?
Mosel

Where is the Bereich of Ruwertal located?
Mosel                   

Where is the Bereich of Saar located?
Mosel

What kind of soil is found in Mosel and how does it benefit the grapes?
red slate
-radiates heat onto the grapes day and night helping to ripen them
-increases drainage
-imparts own character to wine

What is the most important grape of the Mosel?
Riesling

Because of the small amount of carbon dioxide gas in the wine when bottled, Mosel wines usually have this quality (german term)
Spritzig

Name some of the best villages in Bereich Bernkastel (9)
Bernkastel
Brauneberg
Erden
Graach
Neumagen
Piesport
Trittenheim
Urzig
Wehlen
Zeltingen            

Name some of the best villages in Bereich Ruwertal (2)
Eitelsbach
Mertesdorf                        

Name some of the best villages in Bereich Saar (3)
Ockfen
Sharzhof
Wiltengen                          

What kind of wine is Ahr best known for?
Spatburgunder

Baden wines are identical to wine of which other Anbaugebiete?
Franken

The Rhine river separates the southern part of Baden from what?
the Alsace wine area

Where are the steepest vineyards in the world?
Mittelrhein

What is the most important grape of the Mittelrhein?
Riesling

What is fleubereinigung?
relocation of vineyards to improve accessibility to vines                          

Define Spatlese (German)
grapes that are selectively picked at least 7 days after the main harvest starts for that specific variety               

Define Auslese (German)
specially selected, perfectly ripened bunches of grapes that are hand-picked and then pressed separately from other grapes.

Define Beerenauslese (German)
specially selected, overripe grapes that are hand-picked and then pressed separately from other grape

Define Trockenbeerenauslese (German)
specially selected, overripe grapes that are left on the vine until nearly dry and picked one by one      

Which Anbaugebiete is Assmanshausen located?
Rheingau                            

Define Kabinett (German)
Kabinett wines must contain minimum amounts of natural sugar depending on the region/variety    

What is the main varietal of the Rheingau?
Riesling               

Where is Bereich Johannisberg located?
Rheingau

What are the two best single vineyards of the Rheingau?
Schloss Johannisberg and Schloss Volrads         

What are and where are Bingen, Nierstein, and Wonnegau located
Bereichs in Rheinhessen

What's the main grape varietal of Rheinhessen?
Muller-Thurgau              

What are the best wines produced in Rheinhessen?
Riesling               

What is the main wine produced in Rheinhessen?
Liebfraumilch

What is Liebfraumilch (3)?
-blended QbA wine from the Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Pfalz, or Nahe
-must contain 70% of Riesling, Muller-Thurgau, Silvaner, or Kerner
-semi-sweet     

What's the largest region in terms of land mass in Germany?
Rheinhessen     

What's the largest producing region in Germany
Pfalz

Where is Bereich Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse?
Pfalz

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ITALY

Name the grapes of Piedmont
Gavi
Moscato
Barbera
Brachetto
Dolcetto
Nebbiolo
Arneis
Albarossa

What are the grapes of Orvieto
Trebbiano
Grechetto
Verdello
Malvasia

Name all the DOCG of Tuscany (7)
Chianti
Chianti Classico
Brunello di Montalcino
Carmignano
Vernaccio di San Gimgnano
Vino Nobile Montipulciano
Morellino di Scansano

Name the 2 clones allowed in Barolo
Lampia
Michet
also Rose Nebbiolo

What is Castello di Jesi., Where is it found?
A commune within the Marches region
Verdecchio

What are the grapes in Bardolino & Valpolicella (Verona)
Corvina
Molinara
Rondinella

Name 3 grapes used in Bardolino
Corvina
Molinara
Rondinella

Name 3 indigenous grapes of Sicily
Nero d'avola
Grillo
Verdello
Bianco d'alcamo
Inzolia
Marsala

Aprox how long is Barolo aged before release
2 years
4 yrs for Reserva

What is the govorno method
-you take select vineyard grapes
-dry them out on a plastic net so the juice is concentrated
-press them
-add the juice to already fermented wine
Objective: it enhances the wine foe earlier drinking, makes richer fuller chiantis - old faashioned way

What is the law concerning grape varietal in Brunello du Montalcino?
And how long is it aged?
100% Sangiovese Grosso
4 yrs, 2 yrs in oak
5 yrs for Reserva, 2 1/2 in oak

What are the grapes allowed in Soave DOC? (Veneto)
Corvina!!??

Trebbiano
Garganega
Tocai Fruiliano
Chardonnay

What are the main grapes of Soave
Garganega
Trebbiano

Name 2 DOCGs of Veneto
Soave Superiore
Bardolino Superiore

What is the grape in Gavi
Cortese

Taurasi is made primarily from what grape?
Aglianico

What is the grape used for cognac and what is called in Italy?
Ugni Blanc - Trebbiano

What does Vernaccia mean?
Native or indigeneous variety to Italy

Name 3 crus of Barbaresco?
Montestefino
Asili
Rabaja

Name the DOCGs of Umbria
Sagrentino di Montefalco
Togiano Rosso

Name 2 red grapes of Puligia
Primitivo
Negroamoro

What is Connanau
A grenache wine from Sardenia

Name 2 regions in Lombardy
Valtellina Superiore DOCG (neb based reds)
Fraciacarta DOCG (sparkling)
Lugana de San Bendetto (trebbiano)
Oltrepo Parese

Name the DOCG of Umbria
Sagrentino di Montefalco
Togiano Rosso
Orvieto
Torgiano Reserva

What DOCG is the farthest South and what is the main grape?
Cerasualo di Vittorio in Sicily
Nero d'Avola

Name 2 regions in Campania
Greco di Tufo DOCG
Fiano d'Avellino DOCG
Taurasi DOCG
Vesuvio
Taburno

Name the sparkling wine of Piedmont and its grape.
Asti which is made from Moscato(Muscat) Bonus Info: The muscat grapes vary in color from white to orange to black and shades in between. Here in Asti they are white. Which is why locally it is known as Moscato Bianco or White Muscat.

State the requirements of Barolo and Barolo Riserva.
Barolo - 3 years in Barrel/Bottle Barolo Riserva - 5 years in Barrel/Bottle

Describe Barolo Chinato.
Barolo wine that has been aromatized with quinine. Also regared by many as the biggest joke of the DOCG system.

Name two DOCG zones within Chianti.
Chianti
Chianti Classico
Chianti Rufina
Chianti Colli Fiorentini
Chianti Colli Senesi
Chianti Montalbano
Chianti Colline Pisane
Chianti Colli Aretini
Chianti Montespertoli

Name 1 of the DOCs created to include the Super Tuscans.
Bolgheri
Sant'Antimo

Name Tuscany's only white DOCG.
Vernaccia di San Gimignano

State the production and style of Vin Santo.
Vin Santo is made using Passito grapes which are grapes dried on straw mates and then must be aged a minimum of 3 years and up to 6 years in small wooden barrels.

State the non-traditional grape of the 1st Super Tuscans.
Cabernet Sauvignon

State a red DOCG of Tuscany other than Chianti and name the grape.
Brunello di Montalcino DOCG Grape: Brunello
Carmignano DOCG Grape:Sangiovese with up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG
Grape:Same as Chianti(Sangiovese, Merlot, and Syrah) Cabernet Sauvignon is NOT ALLOWED and can be 100% Sangiovese

Name Italy’s only metodo tradizionale sparkling wine DOCG.
Franciacorta DOCG

Name Italy's 1st white DOCG.
Albagna di Romagna DOCG

Name the grapes of Valpolicella.
Corvina
Rondinella
Molinara
Negrara

Name the main grape of Soave.
Garganega

State the 4 quality levels of Italian Wine.
Vino da Tavola (VT)
IGT
DOC
DOCG

Describe the goria laws.
Created in 1992 it is responsible for the IGT level which is used as a spring-board to DOC. Also, they tightened riserva rules as well as modifying some of the vineyard zones.

Name the main grape of Valtellina.
Nebbiolo

Name 1 region of Italy where German grapes are common.
Alto AdigeTrentino

State the grape of Gavi.
Cortese.

Name the most widely planted grape in Piedmont.
Barbera.

State the meaning of secco.
Dry

State the meaning of amabile.
Semi-Sweet or Slightly sweet

State the meaning of frizzante.
Semi-Sparkling

State the meaning of spumante.
Sparkling

State the meaning of passito.
Grapes that are dried on straw mats to concentrate the flavors.

State the meaning of dolce.
Sweet

How many wine regions are there in Italy and what are the 3 most famous.
Most famous are Piedmont, Tuscany, and Veneto.

Name the most important grape of Tuscany.
Sangiovese

State the meaning of Classico.
The best area of a given region.

State the type of wine typically made from Prosecco grape.
Dry to slightly sweet Frizante.

Name the grape(s) and style of Frascati DOC.
Dry White made from Trebbiano and Malvasia.

Name the grape(s) and style of Montepulciano d’Abbruzzo DOC.
Dry Red made from Montepulciano grapes.

Name the grape(s) and style of Fiano d’Avellino DOCG.
Dry White made from the Fiano grape.

Name the grape(s) and style of Taurasi DOCG.
Dry Red made from the Aglianico grape.

Name the grape of Apulia that has a USA connection.
Primitivo (Zinfandel)

Name the grape grown on Mt. Vulture in Basilicata
Aglianico

State the type of wine from Marsala DOC and where it is made.
Fortified wine made in Sicily.

Name the grape(s) and style of Vermentino di Gallura.
Dry White from the Vermentino grape.

State the difference between Amarone and Recioto.
Both are made from passito grapes, but Amarone is dry while Recioto is Sweet.

State the meaning of Ripasso.
re-passed – the traditional winemaking technique in Veneto Young Valpolicella is put into tanks or barrels containing lees from the previous Amarone fermentation which Causes secondary fermentation and increases Alc% giving it a recioto feel.
 

Name three grapes used in the production of Valpollicella
Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara

Name the DOCGs of Piedmont
Barolo DOCG
Barbaresco DOCG
Ghemme DOCG
Gattinara DOCG
Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore DOCG
Roero DOCG
Asti DOCG
Moscato d'Asti DOCG
Cortese di Gavi DOCG   

Name 2 communes of Barbaresco
Barbaresco
Nieve
Treiso                  

Name at least 2 major sub regions of Barolo
La Morra
Barolo
Serralunga D’Alba
Castiglione-Falleto
Monforte D’Alba

Name the important DOCGs of Lombardy (3)
Franciacorta DOCG
Valtellina Superiore DOCG
Oltrepo Pavese DOCG

What are the grapes used to produce Franciacorta?
Chardonnay    Pinot Bianco    Pinot Nero (Pinot Noir)

What kind of wine is produced in Valtellina Superiore DOCG?
Red wines made from a minimum of 90% Nebbiolo

Name 2 subregions of Valtellina Superiore DOCG
Grumello
Inferno
Sassella
Valgella                               

What kind of wine is produced in Oltrepo Pavese DOCG?
Dry reds from Pinot Nero

Name 4 important DOC/Gs of the Veneto
Bardolino Superiore DOCG
Amarone della Valpolicella DOC
Recioto di Soave DOCG
Soave Superiore DOCG

What are the varietals used to produce Soave Superiore DOCG?
Garganega
Trebbiano
Chardonnay                      

What are the varietals used to produce Amarone della Valpolicella DOC?
Corvina with Rondinella making up rest of the blend

What's the sparkling wine of the Veneto?
Prosecco            

What are passito grapes?
dried grapes

What is the ripasso method?
process of adding standard Valpolicella to the lees left from a Recioto fermentation and allowing a second fermentation to take place                     

What are two outstanding DOC zones in Friuli-Venezia-Giulia?z
Colli Orientali del Friuli DOC
Collio DOC

What are the DOCGs in Friuli-Venezia-Giulia and their styles?
Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit DOCG - sweet wine made from Picolit
Ramandolo DOCG - sweet wine made from passito Friulano grapes

What was the first white wine to be granted DOCG status?
Albana di Romagna                       

Name the 6 DOCGs of Tuscany
Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
Carmignano DOCG
Chianti DOCG
Chianti Classico DOCG
Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG

Name 3 subzones of Chianti
Chianti Colli Aretini
Chianti Colli Fiorentini
Chianti Colli Senesi
Chianti Colline Pisane
Chianti Montalbano
Chianti Rufina
Chianti Montispertoli

How long is Brunello di Montalcino aged before release?
5 years

What is the varietal used in Vino Nobile di Montepulciano?
Prugnolo Gentile

What was the first wine to receive DOCG status? 
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano

What is the name of the DOC used to bring in Sassicaia?
Bolgheri DOC                   

This DOC was an attempt to classify all of the vineyards around Montalcino that were making so called Super-Tuscan wines.
Sant Antimo DOC

What are the varietals used to produce Carmignano DOCG?
Sangiovese
Canaiolo Nero
Cabernet
other varietals

What are the varietals used to produce Morellino di Scansano DOCG?
100% Sangiovese

What's the name of the sweet passito wine produced in Tuscany?
Vin Santo           

What does abboccato mean?
semi-sweet       

Where is Orvieto located and which varietals are used for it's production?
Located in Umbria   50% min. Trebbiano with Malvasia and Verdelho

Name the two DOCGs of Umbria
Sagrantino di Montefalco DOCG    
Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG                 

How long does Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG need to be aged before it can be sold as such?
3 years

Which varietals are used to produce Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG?
Sangiovese, Canaiolo Nero, Cabernet Sauvignon             

Which varietal(s) are used to produce Sagrantino di Montefalco?
Sagrantino

Where is Rosso Conero DOCG located and what is the varietal used to produce it?
The Marche and Montepulciano

What is the only DOCG of Abruzzo and what is the varietal used to produce it?
Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline Termane DOCG. Montepulciano is the varietal.

What is the most important DOCG for red wine in Campania and what is the varietal used to produce it?
Taurasi DOCG is made from the Aglianico grape

What are the two white wine producing DOCGs of Campania and which varietal(s) are used to produce each?
Fiano de Avellino DOCG – Fiano
Greco di Tufo DOCG - Greco     

Where is Primitivo DOC located?
Puglia

What is Sicily's only DOCG and which varietals are used to produce it?
Cerasuolo di Vittoria DOCG is produced from Nero d'Avola and Frappato                         

What is Sardinia's only DOCG and which varietals are used to produce it?
Vermentino di Gallura is produced from Vermentino

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NEW ZEALAND

Name 2 regions on New Zealand's North Island
Gisborne (known for Poverty Bay) Muller Thurgau
Hawkes Bay - Chard, Cab
Martinborough - PN
Auckland - original wine region
Bay of Plenty
Waikoto
Wellington

Name 2 regions on New Zealand's South Island
Marlborough - PN & SB
Nelson, where Cloudy Bay is
Canterbury
Otaga

Name 2 wine regions on New Zealand's North Island.
Auckland
Waikato
Gisborne
Hawkes Bay
Martinborough

Name 2 wine regions on New Zealand's South Island.
Nelson
Marlborough
Canterbury
Otago

Name the Grapes of New Zealand (there are 11)
Sauvignon Blanc
Chardonnay
Muller-Thurgau
Riesling
Muscat
Gewurztraminer
Chenin Blanc
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Franc
Merlot
Pinot Noir

Name the 2 main grapes of Marlborough and Nelson Marl (South Island - New Zealand)
Marlborough - Pinot Noir and Sav Blanc
Nelson -  Chard and Sav Blanc

Where are the most Easterly and Southerly vines in the world located?
North Island

Name the regions of the North Island (6).
Northland
Auckland
Bay of Plenty/Waikato
Hawkes Bay
Gisborne
Wairarapa (includes Martinborough)                  

Name the regions of the South Island (4).
Marlborough
Nelson
Canterbury (includes Waipara)
Central Otago

What are the best red wines being produced in New Zealand?
Cabernet Sauvignon

In New Zealand, what percentage of grape varietal, vintage, origin must a wine have to be labeled as such?
85% for all 3 specifications

Which area was the first to be planted with grapes in New Zealand?
Northland on the North IslandWhere is Gimblett Road and which varietal is it most suited to grow?
Hawkes Bay and syrah

Which area is the largest producer of red wine in New Zealand?
Hawkes Bay

Which area on the North Island produces the best Pinot Noir?
Martinborough in Wairarapa

Which area is the largest producer in New Zealand?
Marlborough

Where is the Awetere Valley and Wairau Valleys?
Marlborough

Which organization has developed and processes over half of New Zealand wine and with very high quality high standards?
Montana

Where is the Waipara Valley and the Canterbury Plains?
Canterbury

What is the main varietal of Canterbury?
Pinot Noir

What are 4 main subregions of Central Otago?
Alexandra
Wanaka
Gibbston
Kale Hayes

What makes up 70% of all plantings in Central Otago?
Pinot Noir

What are the best wines being produced in Gisborne?
Chardonnay

Name two regions in the North Island that produces the best wines from Cabernet Sauvignon?
Northland and Auckland

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PORTUGAL

Name the 4 most important grapes of Madeira.
Sercial
Verdelho
Bual (Boal)
Malmsey
Other less important grapes
Terrantez
Bastardo
Tinta Negra Mole
Moscatel

Describe the Estufagem process.
Process of heating the wine in large vessels at 120degrees for approx 6-12 months.

Define Rainwater Madeira.
A soft Verdelho-style created in the 18th century.

What is a Pipe?

A traditional Port cask holding 550 Liters.

Name 3 important grapes in Port.
Red Port:
Touriga Nacional
Touriga Francesa
Tinta Cao
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Tinta Baraco
Bastardo

White Port:
Arinto
Codega
Malvasia
Fino Malvasia
Corada
Robigato
Voshino

Name the cities where port has historically been aged.
Oporto or Villa Nova de Gaia

Describe the difference between Vintage and Tawny Port.
Vintage port is aged for 2 years exactly in oak where as Tawny port must be aged a minimum of 7 years in oak, also Tawny is generally a blend of multiple years where as vintage is from only one.
 

Describe Ruby Port (2)
Blend of young wines from different years
All which have been in barrels of tanks for 2-3 years

Describe Late-bottled Vintage Port (2)
Wine from a single year other than a declared vintage year
Matured in wood for 4-6 years

Describe Vintage Port (2)
Wines from the top vineyards only from very good years in which Port declares a vintage
Matured in cask for 2 years and then bottled and will mature and improve in bottle for 15-40 more years

Describe Single Quinta Port (2)
Grapes come from a given quinta in a single year
Matured in cask for 2 years and then bottled and will mature and improve in bottle for 15-40 more years

Describe Tawny Port (2)
Blend of wines from several years that yield a light colored wine
Ready for drinking when bottled

Describe Aged Tawny Port
Blend of Ports from several years and barrel aged
Tawny with indication of age (10, 20, 30 years), years represent style of Port, not the minimum age.

Describe Colheita Port
Tawny Ports made from a single vintage
Must be aged a minimum of 7 years
Ready for drinking when bottled           

The name of the first red wine of real quality produced in the Douro DOC
Barca Velha                      

What are the main varieties used for red wines in the Douro?
Touriga Nacional,
Tinta Cao
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)

What are the varietals used for the best red wines in the Dao?
Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Alfrocheiro                       

Which grape dominates Bairrada and what kind of wine does it produce?
Baga is the dominant varietal and it makes up a minimum of 50% of the red blends and some of the best reds found in Portugal.

What is Colares and what is it famous for?
Colares is a DOC and it is famous for it's ungrafted Ramisco vines.

When can Setubal be labeled Moscatel de Setubal?
When produced from a minimum of 85% Muscat d'Alexandria

What is Garrafeira and what is it's significance?
Garrafeira is a label term unique to Portugese wines. All wines using this term must have
1. vintage stated on label
2. extra .5 abv above the minimum for its DOC
3. Specific aging requirements

What is Setubal and where is it found?
Setubal is a fortified dessert wine and is produced in Terras Do Sado VR in Portugal.

The name of the first red wine of real quality produced in the Douro DOC
Barca Velha                      

What are the main varieties used for red wines in the Douro?
Touriga Nacional, Tinta Cao Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)

What are the varietals used for the best red wines in the Dao?
Touriga Nacional Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo) Alfrocheiro                           

Which grape dominates Bairrada and what kind of wine does it produce?
Baga is the dominant varietal and it makes up a minimum of 50% of the red blends and some of the best reds found in Portugal.

What is Colares and what is it famous for?
Colares is a DOC and it is famous for it's ungrafted Ramisco vines.                        

When can Setubal be labeled Moscatel de Setubal?
When produced from a minimum of 85% Muscat d'Alexandria             

What is Garrafeira and what is it's significance?
Garrafeira is a label term unique to Portugese wines. All wines using this term must have
1. vintage stated on label
2. extra .5 abv above the minimum for its DOC
3. Specific aging requirements

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SPAIN

Name the only area that Manzanilla style sherry is produced
Sanlucar de Barameda

Name the sherry soil types
Albariza - primary
Barros -clay soil
Arenas - sand

What are the 3 sub regions of Rioja?
Rioja Alta
Rioja Baja
Rioja Alavesa

Name the # of years a LBV port remains in a cask before bottling
4-6, as oppossed to Ruby port which is only 2-3 years

Where is Veglia Sicilia produced? And what is the grape?
Riberia del duero in Spain - Tempranillo

What is the most important town in Cava?
Penedes

Name the sherry cask system and the sherries it produces from lightest to sweetest
The Solera system
Manzanilla
Fino
Amontillado
Oloroso
Palo Cartado

What are the grapes in Priorat?
Garnacha
Cargnane
Sometimes Cabernet Sauvignon
 

Name the grapes used to make Porto
Touriga Nacional
Touriga Francisca
Tinta Cao

What is the main grape used to make Rueda
Verdejo

What is the main grape of Vinho Verde?
Alvarino

Name 2 grapes in Cava?
Macabeo
Xarel-lo

Name the level and time of aging wines in Spain
Joben - young wines, no aging
Crianza - 6mos- 1yr
Reserva aprox - 3 yrs
Gran Reserva aprox - 5 yrs

Name the grapes used in the Jerez region
Pedro Ximenez
Moscatel
Palomino

Name the grapes of Madeira in sweetness order
Sereial
Verdelho
Bual
Malmsey

What is the Tempranillo called in the Duoro Valley
Tinto Roriz

Name 3 grapes in Rioja
Tempranillo
Grenacha
Mazuela

Name the 6 quality levels of Spanish wine.
Vino de Mesa (VdM)
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)
Vino de Calidad con Indicacion Geographica (VCIG)
Denominacion de Origen (DO)
Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa)
Denominacion de Pagos (DOP)

Name 2 DOCa Regions.
Rioja and Priorat.

Define Grandes Pagos.
A single estate wine.

Name 2 red grapes and 2 white grapes of Rioja and Navarra.
Red:
Tempranillo
Garnacha
White:
Viura (Macabeo)
Malvasia
Other Grapes:
Red:
Graciano Mazuelo (Carinena - Carignane)
White:
Garnacha Blanca

Name the 3 sub-zones of Rioja.
Rioja Alta
Rioja Alavesa
Rioja Baja

State the aging requirements for Rioja Joven, Crianza, Reserva, and Gran Reserva.
Joven - Max 2 years
Crianza - Min 2 years (1 in barrel)
Reserva - Min 3 years (1 in barrel)
Gran Reserva - Min 5 years (2 in barrel)

Name the principal town of Sherry.
Jerez

Name the grapes of Sherry.
Palomino
Pedro Ximenez (PX)
Moscatel

State what is character of Albariza soil.
One of 3 soils used to produce Sherry grapes. A soil that retains water, but dries out on top and makes the roots dig down while protecting the water beneath from the heat keeping it from evaporating.

Describe the Solera system.
A fractional blending method to introduce older wine to younger wine year to year never exceeding 1/3 of a barrel.

Name the main styles of Sherry.
Fino, Manzanilla, Amantillado, Palo Cortado, Oloroso, Almancenistas, Cream Sherry.

Define Flor.
A yeast film that forms on the surface of the wine in the barrel.

Name the most important grape(s) of Vinho Verde.
Alvarinho and Loureiro

Name the most important grape of Douro.
Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Tinta Barroca

Name the most important grape(s) of Priorat.
Garnacha

Describe the Gratalops Project.
Alvaro Palacio and other young winemakers planted on higher elevations and slopes and modernized winemaking.

Name Spain’s sparkling wine DO and the grapes.
Cava Grapes:
Parellada
Xarel-lo
Macabeo
Chardonnay

Name the most important grape(s) of Ribera del Duero.
Tempranillo
Garnacha
Also some bordeaux varieties

Name the grape that Tinto de Toro is a synonym of
Tempranillo

State the DO of Vega Sicilia.
Ribera del Duero

State the most important grape(s) of Rias Baixas.
Albarino

What's the Spanish equivalent to AOC?
DO

What's the Spanish equivalent to French VDQS?
VCIG

What's Spanish regional wine called?
VC (Vino Comarcal)

What's the lowest category of Spanish wine called?
VdM (Vino de Mesa)

Where is Priorat located?
Catalan

What is the quality level of Priorat?
DOQ     

What is the highest Spanish classification of quality?
DOCa

What are Vinos de Pagos?
estate wines of particularly high quality.

How long do Crianza wines in Ribera Del Duero and Rioja have to be aged in oak before release?
1 year out of two years maturation before release

Name the subzones of Rioja
Alta, Alavesa, Baja

What are the aging regulations for wines labeled Crianza?
Reds must age a minimum of 2 years with at least 6 months in cask.

Whites and rosados must age a minimum of 12 months with at least 6 months in cask.

What are the aging regulations for wines labeled Reserva?
Red wines must age for 3 years with a minimum 1 year in cask. Whites and rosés must age 2 years with a minimum 6 months in cask.

What are the aging regulations for wines labeled Gran Reserva?
Red wines must age for 5 years with a minimum 1.5 years in cask. Whites and rosés must age 4 years with a minimum 6 months in wood.

What is the largest demarcated wine DO in Spain?
La Mancha

What are the 3 DOCa of Spain?
Rioja      Priorat      Ribera Del Duero

DO that makes good quality reds from Monastrell.
Jumilla

What is Valdepenas and which varietals are used?
Valdepenas is a DO in Spain
Cencibel (Temp) for reds
Airen for whites
Roses and light reds from a mixture     

Where is Montilla Moriles and what kind of wine is produced?

Montilla Moriles is located in Spain and it produces strong white wines made from PX and blended in Solera system.

How are the sweeter style wines in Montilla Moriles produced?

Fortification     

What usually happens to dry white wines in Montilla Moriles?
Dry white wines are attacked by Flor  

What are the most highly rated wines of Navarra DO and which varietals are used in it's production?

Roses made mostly from Grenache

Name 2 sub-districts of Navarra      
Baja Montana
Ribera Alta
Ribera Baja
Tierra Estella
Valdizarbe                         

What is the main white varietal of Navarra?
Viura                    

Where is Cava located?          
Penedes              

What are the 3 sub regions of Penedes?
Baix-Penedes
Medio-Penedes
Alt-Penedes      

What are the two main grapes used for production in Cava and which sub-region are they mostly grown?
Xarello and Macabeo are mostly grown in Medio-Penedes.

Where are top quality grapes grown in Priorat?
In slate soils on the slopes of the Priorat mountains.

What are the varietals used to produce Priorat red wines? (6)
Grenache, Carinena, Cab Sauv, Syrah, Merlot, and Tempranillo

What is the DO surrounding Priorat and what kind of wines are produced there?      
Montsant surrounds Priorat and uses the same blend; Grenache, Carinena, Cab Sauv, Syrah, Merlot, and Tempranillo

Where is Vega Sicilia located?
Ribera Del Duero

What are the varietals used to produce Ribera Del Duero red wines?  
Mostly Tempranillo with the rest of the blend smaller amounts of Grenache, Cab Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec 

What is the name of a high quality red wine in Ribera Del Duero made from 100% Tempranillo?       
Pesquera

Name 3 subzones of Rias Baixas      
Val do Salnes
Condado do Tea
O Rosal
Soutomaior
Ribeira do Ulla

What are the 3 subdistricts of Rioja
Rioja Alta
Rioja Altavesa
Rioja Baja          

What are the varietals used to produce white wines from Rioja?
Viura
Malvasia
Grenache Blanc               

What is Rueda DO best known for producing?
Best white wine producing regions in Spain made from at least 50% Verejo plus Viura              

What are the varietal regulations for Rueda Espumoso and Rueda Superior?
Must contain a minimum of 85% Verdejo

What is the traditional wine style of Tarragona?
Tarrogona Classisco Licoroso which is a sweet red fortified wine matured in oak.

What kind of wine does Toro DO mainly produce
Dry red wines based on Gernacha and Tempranillo

Name 3 subareas of Vinho Verde    
Amarante*
Ave
Baiao
Basto*
Cavado
Lima
Moncao*
Paiva
Sousa

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SOUTH AFRICA

State what two grapes were crossed to create Pinotage.
Pinot Noir X Cinsault

State the minimum % for Appelation labeling in South Africa.
100%

State the meaning of Cultivar.
Varietal

Describe Vin de Constance.
A sweet wine made from Muscat de Alexandria and Muscat de Frontignan It comes from Constantia from some of the oldest vineyards in South Africa.

Expalin how KWV impacted South African wine quality.
The KWV mandated prices and negatively affected the quality of the wines.

State what event led to a boom for South African wines in the 1990s.
The end of Apartheid.

State what "WO" is an abbreviation for.
Wine of Origin

Name two WOs of the coastal region.
Stellenbosch
Paarl
Swartland
Tygerberg
Tulbagh

And the Wards:
Constantia
Durbanville

Where is Walker Bay and what grapes is it known for?
South Africa It is known for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.

Name 2 important regions in South Africa
Stellenbosch
Paarl
Capetown
Olifants
Picletberg
Swartland
Darling
Tulbach
Tugerberg
Worcester
Robertson
Klevin Karoo
Swellendam
Overberg (where Elgin is)
Walker Bay

What is Steen?
What Chenin Blanc is bottled and called in South Africa

Virtually all vineyards in South Africa are located in which general area?
The southwestern Cape

Pinotage is a cross of which two varietals?
Pinot Noir and Cinsault

Where is the Kanonkop Estate located and what wine is it a benchmark producer?
Kanonkop Estate is located in Stellenbosh and it makes benchmark Pinotage

What is the percentage of grapes that The WO seal on a bottle guarantees originated from the specified production unit (estate, ward, district, or region)?
100%

What is the percentage of grapes that a WO wine must have if a varietal or vintage is stated on the bottle?
75%

Name 8 districts of the Coastal Region.
1. Stellenbosch *
2. Paarl *
3. Cape Point
4. Constantia
5. Darling
6. Tygerberg
7. Tulbagh *
8. Swartland

Name the 2 top wards of Paarl.
Franschoek and Wellington

What are the 5 best varietals/wine being produced in Paarl?
1. Chenin Blanc
2. Chardonnay
3. Pinotage
3. Shiraz
5. Cabernet Sauvignon

Along with Paarl and Overberg, this top quality red/white wine district forms the centre of S. Africa's winemaking industry.
Stellenbosch

Name 4 districts of the Breede River Valley Region
Robertson*
Breedlekloof*
Worcester*
Swellendam

What are the two very high quality wines that Robertson is known for producing?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah

What is the most important are for brandy production in South Africa?
Worcester

Name the most important ward in Overberg?
Elgin

What two top quality wines is Walker Bay known for producing?
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay

Elgin is making top quality wine from which varietal?
Sauvignon Blanc

What is most widely planted red varietal in South Africa?
Cabernet Sauvignon

What is the only district in the Northern Cape?
Douglas

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USA
Wine laws are more flexible than European standards in regards to regulations on what viticultural and winemaking practice are allowed in each wine region. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) defines and approves applications for regions to become American Viticultural Areas. This system was established in 1978 with the Augusta AVA in Missouri designated as the first recognized AVA on June 20, 1980.[9] A sizable portion of American wine laws relate to wine labelling practices and include the stipulations that
Varietal Content
If the grape is listed on the label, the wine must be composed of at least 75% of that grape varietal. If a vintage years is referenced, 95% has to be from that year.

Origon of the Grapes
1) if an AVA name appears on the label that at least 75% of grapes used to produce the wine must come from that AVA.

2) In addition to AVAs, every American state and county can produce wine and label it under their state/county wide appellation provided at least 75% of the grapes come from that area.

3) The state of California and Texas have wine laws increasing the requirement to 100% and 85% (75% all others), respectively, for use of a state-wide appellation on the wine label.

The state of Oregon has increased the restriction for grape variety to 90%, with exception of Cabernet Sauvignon which under Oregon wine laws can have a minimum 75%.

USA is 4th in production in the world and 33rd in consumption of wine

CA – 4 gallons of wine per person per year
USA – 2 gallons of wine per person per year

Top 4 wine producing states by volume
1. California
2. Washingtnon
3. New York – North fork of Long Island – a lot of plantin of vinifera grapes – Merlot
4. Oregon

Flash Cards for General USA Questions
Name the top 4 wine producing states in the USA.

1. California 2. Washington 3. New York 4. Oregon

Who regulate the US wine industry?
Treasury department

Name the 1st AVA.
Augusta, Missouri

Name 3 AVAs of Washington.
Columbia Valley* Columbia Gorge* Horse Heaven Hills Red Mountain Walla Walla Valley* Yakima Valley Puget Sound * = Area that crosses into Oregon as well

Name the state where winemaking started in the USA.
New York State.

What are the AVA laws
-if label says CA or County, must be 75%
- if label names an AVA area must be 85% grapes
-if label says estate AVA must be 100%
- if label says vintage must be 95%
- The varietal named only has to be 75%

Which red and white wines won the 1976 Paris Tasting
1973 Chateaux Montelena Chardonnay
1973 Stags Leap Cabernet

Who is considered the Father of CA wine and which winery did he found?
Count Agoston Harazsthy in 1857 founded Buena Vista Winery

What does AVA stand for and who admnisters it?
American Viticultural Area, the largest AVA is in CA, controlled by the TTB (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau) a division of BATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) Priot to 2002 – BATF
Guidelines finalized in 1978 became mandatory in 1983. Defined as “delimited grape growing area”.

There are 96 AVAs in California & 91 in remaining 49 states (7/10/06)

CALIFORNIA
Five General Wine Growing Areas
North Coast
Central Coast
Sierra Foothills
Central Valley

Flash Cards for General California Questions
Which general region in CA produces 85% of all California wine?
Central Valley                  

According to the Meritage Association, what is the highest percent that a single varietal can make up in a Meritage blend?
90%

Lake, Mendocino, Sonoma, and Napa counties are part of which area?
North Coast

Which AVA is sandwiched between the Mayacamas and Vaca mountains?
Napa Valley

What's the main ecological factor of Napa Valley?
the cool wind and fog that is sucked in from San Pablo Bay during the afternoon, cooling the vines.

Carneros is kept cool by what two ecological factors?
Proximity to the ocean and SF bay.

Where is Russian River Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Sonoma County, North Coast. Pinot and Chardonnay

Where is Alexander Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Sonoma County, North Coast. Cabernet

Where is Dry Creek Valley (county and region)? What is its noted varietals?
Sonoma County, North Coast. Cabernet and Syrah

Where is Yountville (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Napa County, North Coast. Cabernet

Where is Oakville (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Napa County, North Coast. Bordeaux varietals

Where is Rutherford (county and region)? What is it's noted varietal?
Napa County, North Coast. Cabernet

Where is Anderson Valley (county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Mendocino County, North Coast. Pinot Noir, Riesling, Gewurz

Where is McDowell Valley(county and region)? What is it's noted varietals?
Mendocino County, North Coast. Rhone varietals

Where is Clear Lake AVA (county and region)?
Lake County, North Coast

Where is Lodi AVA (county and region)?
Central Valley, North Coast

Which area produces 75% of all California wines?
Central Valley, California North Coast

Where is E&J Gallo located?
Central Valley, California North Coast

Which larger AVA is Monterey Bay AVA located?
San Francisco bay area AVA

Which larger AVA is Arroyo Seco AVA located? Which county is it located?
Central South Coast AVA, Monterey County

Which larger appellation is Paso Robles AVA under? Which county is is located?
Central South Coast AVA, San Luis Obispo County

Which wine is Paso Robles AVA famous for making?
Cabernet            

The Rhone Rangers are gaining attention making syrah in which AVA?
Paso Robles AVA

Which larger appellation is Edna Valley AVA under? Which county is it located?
Central South Coast AVA, San Luis Obispo County

What wine is Edna Valley AVA famous for making?
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir                      

What Napa AVA is best for cool climate grapes?
Carneros

What 2 CA AVAs are considered the coolest?
Santa Barbara
Anderson Valley

What is Meritage
A made up word…merit and heritage
White or red Bordeaux grape varietals
   Red -  Cab Sauv, cab franc, merlot, petit verdot
   White - Sauv Blanc, Semillion,

Zinfandel – California grape?
   Primitivo – Itallian not likely
   Crljenak Kastlanski – Croatia more likely

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The 5 general wine-growing areas in CA
(for full AVA list see: wiki/American_Viticultural_Area)
North Coast
– Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, Lake County, Marin & Solano Counties
Central Coast
– Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo (Paso Robles is there) , Santa Barbara
Sierra Foothills
– Amador, El Dorado and Calaveras counties
Central Valley
– Lodi, etc.
South Coast
– Temecula, the South Coast, Cucamonga Valley,  etc.

The 4 counties of CA's North Coast
Napa
Sonoma
Lake
Mendocino

Napa County
First planting in 1838 by George Yount
Over 39K acres under vine
Wine range of climaes and meso-climates

Appeltations:
Pope Valley
Rutherford
Howell Mt – Cab & Zin
Stags Leap -
Diamond Mt – Cab Sauv
Oakville
St Helena
Spring Mt
Yountville
Wild Horse Valley
Mt Veeder
Atlas Peak
Chiles Valley
Oak Knoll
Los Carneros – drastically different, overlaps Somona and Napa; Chard & Pinot Noir are great
Calistoga (pending) – great Cab Sauv

Sonoma Valley
First vinifera vineyards planted near Sonoma in 1838 by Agoston Haraszthy (Buena Vista Winery)
Six fertile valleys – maritime influence
Larger area than Napa Valley with a greater range of meso-climates
Very diverse climates – cool to moderate
Russian River – sparkling wine, pinot noir
Alexander Vallei – Cab Sauv

Appeltations:
Alexander Valley
Russian River Valley
Knights Valley
Dry Creek Valley
Knights Valley
Chalk Hill
Rockpile – big time Zin
Green Valley of Russian River Valley – Chard
Sonoma Coast
Los Caneros
Bennett Valley
Sonoma Valley
Sonoma Mt
Norther Somona

Mendocino & Lake County AVAs
Wine Range of meso-climates
Historically jug wine varieties planted in warmest areas
Cooler climate with an active sparkling wine industry
Best vineyards sites on the fork of the Navarro and Mendocino rivers

Appeltations:
Anderson Valley
Cole Ranch
Dos Rios
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley
McDowell Valley
Mendocino Ridge
Benmore Valley
Yorkville Highlands
Clear Lake
Guenoc Valley
Red Hills Lake County

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The counties included in the Central Coast area
Santa Barbara
Monterey
Santa Clara
Santa Cruz
San Benito
San Luis Obispo
Paso Robles      

San Francisco Bay Area AVAs
Cool coastal climate vs. hot inland
Wide range of varieties and wine styles

Appelations:
San Francisco Bay
Livermore Valley
Santa Cruz Mountains
Ben Lomond Mountain
Santa Clara Valley
San Ysidro District
   Mount Eden Vineyards – ageable wines

Monterey County
Cool climate vs. hot inland regions
Wine range of varieties and wine styles

Appeltations:
Mount Harlan
Cienega Valley
Ume Kiln Valley
San Benito
Paicines
Monterey
Carmel Valley – Cab Sauv
Santa Lucia Highlands
Chalone
Arroyo Secco
San Lucas
San Antonio

San Louis Obispo County AVAs
Paso Robles

   One of CAs oldest growing regions
   Considerable expansion over the last ten years
   No marine influence – hot climate
   Suitable for red varieties
   Zinfandel and Rhone varietals
Edna Valley
   South of Paso Robles
   Marine influence – cool climate
   Chardonnay and Pinot Noir

Santa Barbara County            
Cool coastal climate
Series of east-west valleys
Longest growing season in CA
Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Merlot
This is where you can ght Pinot Noir at 14.5% alcohol – too much!

Appeltations:
Santa Ynez Valley
Santa Rita Hills
Santa Maria Valley

Sierra Foothils AVAs
(Amador, El Dorado & Calaveras countries)
CA Shendandoah Valley
Dunnigan Hills
El Dorado
Fair Play
Fiddletown
North Yuba
   Highway 49 on western side of the Sierra Mountains there are 47 wineries

Central Valley AVAs
Lodi AVAs
   Lodi
   Conumnes River
   Alta Mesa
   Jahant
   Mokelumne River
   Borden Ranch
   Sloughouse

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WASHINGTON
washington-wine/regions-avas/
9AVAs in Washington, with 3 overlapping Oregon
Arid climate requiring irrigation
Cadcade Mountains provide rain shadow effect
Reputatiion built on Cab, Merlot and Bordeaux blends
Syrah on the rise
Lianette Reserve Merlot - $100+ a bottle

How does the Columbia River majorly benefit Washington state in terms of grape growing?             
Washington State relies on the Columbia River for irrigation   

Washington AVAs (9)
Columbia Gorge
Columbia Valley
Horse Heaven Hills
Rattlesnake Hills
Red Mountain
Wahluke Slope
Walla Walla Valley
Yakima Slope
Puget Sound

Subappellations in Columbia Valley AVA
Red Mountain AVA
Wahluke Slope AVA
Yakima Valley AVA
Walla Walla Valley AVA
Horse Heaven Hills AVA
Rattlensnake Hills AVA

Puget Sound

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OREGON
oregonwine.org/Home/
Small industry founded in the 1970s
Climate similar to Burgundy
Reputation built on world-class Pinot Noir
French investment
16 AVAs in Orgon with 3 overlapping Washington and 1 overlapping Idaho

Strict labeling regulations
    90% for grape variety (except 75% fpr Cab)
   100% pf grapes from stated AVAs
   100% of grapes come from source owned by the winemaker.. Wine must also be made and reared on the same
   estate


Important grape varieties in Willamette
   Pinot Gris
   Chardonnay
   Pinor Noir

Southern Oregon varieties on the rise
   Bordeaux varietlas
   Syrah, Tempranillo & Zinfandel

AVAs of Oregon.
Columbia Valley
   Columbia Gorge
   Walla Walla Valley
Willamette Valley
   Dundee Hills
   McMinville
   Ribbon Ridge
   Yamhill-Carlton District
   Eola-Amity Hills
   Chehalem Mountains – most recent
Some top producers in Willamette Valley
Domaine Seren
Eyrie Vineyards
Cristom
Bergstom
Domaine Drouhin

Southern Oregon
   Umpqua Valley
      Red Hill Douglas County

Rogue Valley
   Applegate Valley – newest AVA – overlaps Idaho: Snake River Valley

Name the 6 subappellations of Willamette Valley
1. Chehalem Mountains
2. Ribbon Ridge
3. Dundee Hills
4. Yamhill-Carlston District
5. McMinnville
6. Eola-Amity Hills

What is the minimum percentage that a wine must have in Oregon if it states a varietal? What is the exception?
90% except Cabernet Sauvignon which is 75%

If a wine produced in Oregon states a designated area, what percentage has to be from stated area?
100%   

NEW YORK
The USAs oldest wine industry
Northern climate and its affect on viticulture
History of labrusca grapes and hybrids
Dr. Konstantin Frank and the Geneva Viticultural Station – the father of vinifera grapes in MY
The rise of Long Island wines
Why don’t we have MY wine in CA – strict wine laws; no direct shipment of wineries
   A distributor has to pick up in order to sell itand that may not be economical

AVAs of New York.
Finger Lakes
Cayuga Lake
Seneca Lake
Niagara Escarpment
Lake Erie
Hudson River Region
North Fork of Long Island
The Hamptons, Long Island
Long Island

MIDWEST
Lake Wisconsin
Augusta (Missouri – first AVA in America)
Hermann
Ozark Highlands
Ohio River Valley
Ozark Mountains

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LIQUORS

State the 2 main categories of beer.
Ale: Made with top fermenting yeast
Lager: Made with bottom fermenting yeast

Name 2 styles of beer within each of the 2 main beer categories.
Ale:
Pale Ale
Bitters
Porters
Stouts
Wheat

Lager:
Pilsner
Bock

State the steps of beer production.
Soak the barley in water until germination. Bake barley in kiln to stop germination. Yeast is added to cause fermentation creating alcohol and CO2. Hops is now added if bitter flavor is desired.

Name the premium sake quality levels.
Junmai-Sho: 30% polished
Ginjo-Sho: 40% polished
Daiginjo-Sho: 50% polished

Define albemic.
Pot Still.

Name 2 scotch regions.
Highlands, Lowlands, and Islay.
Islay is the strongest, and generally either Islay or Highlands is the best.

Define Bourbon.
Must be made from 51% or more corn. It is distilled in a pot still making it a distilled beer. Also it must be aged for 2 years in new american oak.

What is Irish Whiskey made from and how is it distilled?
Barley and other grains - It is distilled 3 times in a pot still

What is Marc Brandy?
The liquor obtained from fermenting the skins and pips after pressing the grapes it is similar to the process of grappa
 
What are the styles of Sake?
Junmai - 30% polished, no added alc
Honjozo-shu 30% polished, small amt of added alc
Ginjoshu 40% polished w or w/o added alc
Daiginjo-sho 50% polished w or w/o added alc

What is the name of the yeast used in commercial Sake?
Koji, depending on the type used it can dramatically effect the flavor

What is the difference between the fermenting of Lager and Ale?
Ales -Top fermenting
Lager- Bottom Fermenting

 

BEERS

A kilderkin of beer has many gallons?
18
 

LIQUEURS

What are liqueurs?
Liqueurs are sweetened flavoured spirits produced by blending herbs, spices and other flavorings with neutral spirit or by distillation of a liquid from the fruit itself

Name and describe the 3 basic types of Rum
Golden and spiced rum – color from oak maturation and flavored with spices

Dark Rum – fermentation started with Dunder &matured in wood for 5-7 years. Adjusted with caramel.

White or Silver Rum – distilled in continuous still &matures 1 year in glass or stainless steel                   

Name 4 citrus liqueurs besides Grand Marnier
Cointreau

Curacao

Triple Sec

Van der Hume

Name 2 chocolate liqueurs
Creme de Cacao

Royal mint chocolate liqueur

Name 2 coffee liqueurs
Kahlua

Tia Maria           

Name 4 cream liqueurs
Amarula

Baileys Original Cream liqueur

Devonshire Royal Cream liqueur

Sheridans           

Name a caraway flavored liqueur
Kummel

Name 2 french liqueurs made from secret recipes that contain herbs, spices, etc, and are aged in wood
Benedictine and Chartreuse      

Name 2 liqueurs flavored with apricot and apricot kernals
Amaretto and Apricot Brandy

Describe Calvados
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented apple juice

Describe Framboise
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented raspberries

Describe Kirsch
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented cherries

Describe Mirabelle
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented mirabelles which are small yellow plums                              

Describe Poire William         
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented pears

Describe Slivovitz     
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented plums

Describe Quetsch
Eau-de-vie made from the distillation of fermented red plums

Describe Marc brandy
Brandy made by distilling the fermented liquor obtained from steeping the pips and skins left after the grapes have been pressed for the production of wine

Describe Grappa
Brandy that under EU law can only be made in Italy and made by distilling the fermented liquor obtained from steeping the pips and skins left after the grapes have been pressed for the production of wine

What do the terms Invecchiata and Stravecchia refer to?
Both refer to oak aging of Grappa

From what are Angostura bitters made?
Rum, gentian, and vegetable spices

Describe the flavor of Amer Picon
Orange flavored French bitters               

Describe the flavor of Campari
Italian bitters flavored with herbs and spices

Describe the flavor of Fernet Branca
Strongly flavored bitters from Italy and France                              

Describe the flavor of Underberg   
Spirit flavored with natural herb bitters

What is Schnapps?
Dutch, Danish, or German spirit made from the distillation of grain

Describe Aquavit
Danish schnapps flavored with caraway

Name 4 aniseed-based spirits.          
1. Pernot
2. Ricard
3. Ouzo
4. Pastis

Name 3 methods in which the flavorings used to sweeten Liqueurs are extracted.
Distillation    Infusion    Percolation

What is Advocaat made from?
Made from egg yolks and brandy                           

What is Cordial Medoc made from?
Made from a blend of Creme de Cacao, Brandy, and Curacao

What is Frangelico's flavor?
flavoured with hazelnuts, berries, and flowers

What is Galliano?
herb-flavoured yellow liqueur                

What is Grand Marnier?
Orange flavored liqueur that is Cognac based

What is Licor 43?
Liqueur flavored with both vanilla and citrus fruits

What is Strega?
Liqueur flavored with herbs and bark

What is Drambuie, Glayva, and Glen Mist made from?
Made from a base of Scotch whiskey and sweetened and flavoured with heather honey and herbs

What is Irish Mist made from?
Made from a base of Irish whiskey and sweetened and flavoured with heather honey and herbs

What is Southern Comfort made from?
Made from a base of Bourbon whiskey, peaches, and oranges 

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COCKTAILS

What are the ingredients in an Americano?
1 measure Campari
1 measure sweet vermouth
Soda water        

What are the ingredients in a Black Velvet?
Equal quantities of Champagne and Guinness are built into a beer or high ball glass

What are the ingredients in a Bloody Mary?
1 measure vodka
1 baby size bottle of tomato juice
2-3 dashes of Worcestershire sauce
1 dash lemon   

What are the ingredients in a Bellini?         
2/3 Champagne
1/3 Peach juice

What are the ingredients in a Buck's Fizz?
2/3 Champagne
1/3 fresh Orange Juice

What are the ingredients in a Mimosa?
2/3 Champagne
1/3 fresh Orange Juice
dash of Orange Curacao

What are the ingredients in a Kir Royale?
2 dashes of Creme de Cassis topped with Champagne

What are the ingredients in a Champagne Cocktail?
1 glass of dry Champagne
1 teaspoon of Cognac
1 cube of sugar
Angostura bitters

What are the ingredients in a Brandy Alexander?
1/3 Brandy
1/3 Brown Creme de Cacao
1/3 Cream
Nutmeg on top

What are the ingredients in a Cosmopolitan?
1 measure of vodka
1 measure of cranberry juice
1/2 measure of Cointreau/Triple Sec
Juice of 1/2 of a fresh lime

What are the ingredients in a Cuba Libre?
1 measure of white rum
juice of half of a fresh lime
cola

What are the ingredients in a Daiquiri?
3/4 white rum
3 dashes of Gomme syrup
1/4 fresh lime juice

What are the ingredients in Frappes?
Pour 1 measure of liqueur into cocktail glass filled with crushed ice.

What are the ingredients in a Grasshopper?
1/3 Creme de Menthe
1/3 Creme de Cacao
1/3 Cream

What are the ingredients in a Harvey Wallbanger?
2 oz of vodka
1 baby-size bottle of orange juice
1/2 measure of Galliano

What are the ingredients in a Highball?
a spirit
an effervescent mixer

What are the ingredients in a Horse's Neck?
1 measure Brandy
Ginger Ale
Peel of one lemon

What are the ingredients in a Rye Highball?
1 measure Rye whiskey
Ginger ale or Soda water            

What are the ingredients in a Tom Collins?
1 measure of London dry gin
1 teaspoon of Gomme syrup
Juice of medium lemon
Soda water

What are the ingredients in a Kir?
1/2 oz of Creme de Cassis topped with dry white wine in a wine glass

What are the ingredients in a Long Island Iced Tea
1 part vodka
1 part tequila
1 part white rum
1 part gin
1 part Cointreau
1 part lemon juice
Splash of coke

What are the ingredients in a Mai Tai?
1 measure white rum
1 measure golden rum
1/2 measure of curacao
1/4 measure of orgeat
Juice of a lime

What are the ingredients in a sweet Manhattan?
1 1/2 measures of rye whiskey
1/4 measure of sweet vermouth
1 dash of Angostura bitters

What are the ingredients in a Rob Roy?
1 1/2 measures of Scotch whisky
1/4 measure of sweet vermouth
1 dash of Angostura bitters

What are the ingredients in a perfect (medium) Manhattan?
1 1/2 measures of rye whiskey
1/2 measure of sweet vermouth
1/2 measure of dry vermouth

What are the ingredients in a dry Manhattan?
2 measures of rye whiskey
1/2 measure of dry vermouth

What are the ingredients in a Sweet Martini?
2 measures gin
1 measure of sweet vermouth

What are the ingredients in a Perfect Martini?
2 measures gin
1/2 measure of sweet vermouth
1/2 measure of dry vermouth

What are the ingredients in a Dry Martini
2 measures Gin
1/2 measure of dry Vermouth                

What are the ingredients in a Negroni?
1/3 Gin
1/3 sweet vermouth
1/3 Campari
Soda water is optional 

What are the ingredients in an Old-Fashioned?
1 large measure of rye whiskey
Angostura bitters
Cube of sugar
Small amount of water

What are the ingredients in a Pimm's No.1?
2 ozs of Pimm's
top with Lemonade

What are the ingredients in a Pink Gin?
2 ozs Plymouth Gin
Angostura bitters
iced water                         

What are the ingredients in a Pink Lady?
2 ozs of dry Gin
1/2 measure of Grenadine
1 egg white

What are the ingredients in a Pina Colada?
1 large measure of white rum
1/2 baby size bottle of pineapple juice
1 measure of coconut cream                    

What are the ingredients in a Pousse-Cafe?
Layered drinks of syrups, liqueurs, and spirits

What are the ingredients in a Rusty Nail?
2 parts Scotch whisky
1 part Drambuie
serve with lemon                           

What are the ingredients in a Screwdriver?
2 oz of Vodka
1 baby size orange juice                              

What are the ingredients in a Sidecar?
2 parts Brandy
1 part Cointreau
1 part fresh lemon juice

What are the ingredients in Sours?
a spirit
a liqueur or syrup
fresh fruit juice
sometimes egg white
shaken

What are the ingredients in a Whisky Sour?
2 oz of Scotch Whisky
1/2 oz of Gomme Syrup
Juice of 1/2 lemon
1/2 egg white (optional)

What are the ingredients in a Tequila Sunrise?
2 oz Tequila
1 baby size bottle of orange juice
Pour small amount of grenadine down glass

What are the ingredients in a White Lady?
2 parts London dry gin
1 part Cointreau
1 part fresh lemon juice

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COFFEES

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Calypso coffee?
Tia Maria                           

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Caribbean coffee?
Rum

What is the liqueur or spirit in a DOM or Monk's coffee?
Benedictine      

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Gaelic or Highland coffee?
Scotch whisky 

What is the liqueur or spirit in an Irish coffee?
Irish whiskey

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Prince Charles coffee?
Drambuie

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Royal coffee?
Cognac, flamed               

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Rudesheimer coffee?
Asbach brandy

What is the liqueur or spirit in a Witches coffee?
Strega  
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SERVING TEMPERATURES
What is the ideal temperature for long term wine storage?
50-55 degrees F

What is the ideal serving temperature for Sweet White Wines?
43-47 degrees F

What is the ideal serving temperature for Dry Sherry and Dry Madeira?
43-47 degrees F
                               
What is the ideal serving temperature for Champagne and Sparkling Wines
43-50 degrees F

What is the ideal serving temperature for Light White Wines and Rose?
45-50 degrees F              

What is the ideal serving temperature for Heavy Whites and Light Reds?
50-55 degrees F

What is the ideal serving temperature for Tawny Port and Sweet Sherries?    
54-61 degrees F

What is the ideal serving temperature for Medium Bodied Reds?
55 degrees F     

What is the ideal serving temperature for Full Bodied and Aged Reds?
59-64 degrees F                              

What is the ideal serving temperature for Sweet Madiera and Vintage Port?  
64-68 degrees F

WINE MAKING
Define Veraison
Word used by English speakers for that intermediate stage of grape berry development which marks the beginning of ripening, when the grapes change from the hard, green state to their softened and colored form.          


VARIETAL PROFILES
WHITE WINES

Chenin Blanc
Chenin Blanc is not very well known primarily because it has not created many successes outside of its native region of the Loire in France. Known for its wonderful fragrance and high acidity, Chenin Blanc is known to make exceptionally long-lived wines, especially when vinified sweet.

Stylistically, when dry, Chenin Blanc tends toward more nutty, lactic qualities, creating racy, bone-dry wines with interesting complexity.

When sweet, Chenin Blanc tends to emphasize more fruit flavors, hinting at lemons, apples, and melons with strong floral touches.

In South Africa the grape is widely planted and referred to as Steen. The soil and climate in the US does not favor Chenin Blanc, therefore many of the US examples of Chenin are clumsy and sweet with no real distinctiveness.

Aromas and flavors: Sour Cream Almonds Nuts Toast 
Lemon Pear Apple Melon 
Marzipan Dried Flowers Yogurt Apricot

Chardonnay
One of the reasons for Chardonnay's popularity is the fact that the grape is relatively neutral in varietal characteristics, relying more on the skill of the winemaker to bring out more assertive flavors in the wine. In its native Burgundy, winemakers tend to be less manipulative than their counterparts in the US and Australia.

The winemakers in Burgundy know that Chardonnay, when grown on the chalky soils of the Cote de Beaune, with time will evolve the less flamboyant grape into an intensely complex wine of richness and character. Winemakers in the US tend to be less patient, so they try several techniques to produce the desired complexity and richness now, without the wait. Typically American.

Stylistically, Chardonnay made in a less-manipulated way in cooler climates (called "old world” style) tends to exhibit more apple, lemon and grapefruit flavors, with more subtle complexity, such as flinty, nutty traces.

Chardonnay made in a more-manipulated way from slightly warmer climates (called "new world” style) tends to exhibit more tropical fruit flavors, like banana, and pineapple, with less finesse and more potent flavors, like butterscotch, praline and vanilla. Often, the severe flavor of oak all but denudes any other quality in the wine in these overly manipulated monsters. For me,

Chardonnay is at its greatest in an "old world” style wine. Here the subtle mimicry of the grape takes on the many essences of the soil and climate where it was grown, creating a long-lived, beautifully evolving piece of liquid artistry.



Aromas and flavors: Stone Green Apple Citrus Pear Melon Nuts Pineapple Oak 
Honey Vanilla Peach Apricot Butter Smoke Caramel Butterscotch

Gewurztraminer
Gewürztraminer derives its name from the German word for "spice" (gewurz) and the name of the Italian village of Termino, or Tramin, where the grape originated. Spice is an excellent word for this grape with its virtual "Far East spice cabinet" set of aromas. Gewürztraminer is truly at its finest in France's Alsace region, where the heady perfumed aroma is a dead give away that your drinking Gewürztraminer.

In Alsace the grape produces wines that range from bone-dry to sticky sweet, all usually low acid with incredible extract. Aromas vary from nutmeg and ginger to rose water and lychee nut. The palate is generally similar, except for an ever-so-slight nut-skin bitterness that can tend towards oily beeswax. I have yet to taste Gewürztraminer outside of Alsace that even begins to compare. Most wines made in the US are, like their Chenin Blanc cousins, clumsy and lacking any of the profound complexity that is the grape's hallmark.



Aromas and flavors:Nutmeg Rose Ginger Lychee Nut Mace Cardamom Allspice Grapefruit

Pinot Grigio
Pinot Grigio (or Pinot Gris as it is commonly known in France and the US) is known to make refreshing thirst-quenching wines of no great distinction. Pinot Grigio is also interesting for its seemingly dual personality.

Stylistically as Pinot Grigio, the grape tends to make light, crisp high acid wines that are generally bone-dry with a lot of lemony/citrus tartness. As Pinot Gris, the grape tends to make more rounded, supple low acid wines that hint at buttery/nutty flavors with lots of extract.

As Pinot Grigio the grape is probably best known in the Northeast portion of Italy in Trentino-Alto Adige and Friuli-Venezia-Giulia. As Pinot Gris the grape shines in France's Alsace region. In the US, Oregon holds the distinction of being the most planted region in the US for Pinot Gris with a decent track record for quality interpretations.
Aromas and flavors: Apple Lemon Butter Pear Almonds Minerals Honey Orange Blossom

Riesling
Riesling is indigenous to Germany and seems to thrive in the harshness of the German climate. The grape tends not to perform well in warmer climates. Riesling can be made in many styles even within its native Germany. In all cases, Riesling retains a high degree of acidity, which is often kept in check by the presence of sweetness. Like Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling is a reflection of the soil and climate where it is made.

The flavors found in Riesling can range from flinty and lemony to wet stone and peach to minerals and fennel. The wines can also range from completely dry to unctuously sweet.

In the Alsace region of France, the only region is France where it is legal to grow Riesling, the wines tend towards more full-bodied, dry incarnations, emphasizing the apple, peach and honeysuckle qualities.

In the US and Australia, the wines tend to be lightly sweet, emphasizing more tropical qualities like passion fruit, orange blossom and kiwi. Johannisberg Riesling is a synonym for Riesling.



Aromas and flavors: Apple Peach Lime Pineapple Apricot Ginger Flint Jasmine Honey Kiwi Steel

Sauvignon Blanc
Sauvignon Blanc is a grape that is almost as well traveled as Chardonnay with a wide variety of flavor characteristics that are solely dependent on the soil and climate where it is grown.

 In the more chalky soils of the Loire, the grape exhibits a more flinty, grassy persona, while in the gravelly soils of Entre-Deux-Mers (Bordeaux), the grape is more herbaceous and vegetal

 In California the grape shows greater richness with tendencies towards honey and pear flavors. In New Zealand, the grape shows more tropical and citrus notes. The use of oak can also have a big impact on Sauvignon Blanc. In areas that historically don’t employ oak aging (the Loire), the wines are clean, crisp and refreshing.

In areas where oak aging is prevalent (California), the wines take on a richer, nuttier quality. The name Fume Blanc is synonymous with Sauvignon Blanc. Sauvignon Blanc tends to be high in acid with a lively, aromatic nose. 


Aromas and flavors usually associated with Sauvignon Blanc: Melon Pear Fig Hay Grass Musk Lemon Toast Stone Grapefruit 
Cat Pee Flint Herbs Pineapple

Viognier
Because Viognier is known as a "shy and unreliable” producer, not much is planted outside of its native region of France's Rhone Valley, specifically the appellations of Condrieu, Chateau Grillet and Cote Rotie. The grape's scarcity is beginning to change, as more and more wine makers are finding success with the grape in California.

Viognier is well known for its nose and the often-heady aromas present. However, stylistically the grape can be severely effected by winemaking techniques that hide or mask the grape's natural beauty. This is true for winemaking styles on both continents. When not heavily influenced by oak, the grape yields a wine with intense fruit aromas and sinful fruit flavors ranging from peach and apricot to passion fruit and mango.

Typically this style also doesn't favor malolactic fermentation so there is generally no lactic qualities. When made with a heavy oak influence the lush fruit is typically masked by wood and vanilla notes and the wine takes on the characteristics of a heavy, woody Chardonnay.


Aromas and flavors usually associated with Viognier: Grass Peach Honey Apricot Honeysuckle Lemon Grass Kiwi Mango Guava Passionfruit

RED WINES

Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is native to Bordeaux, where it is most prevalent in the Right Bank appellations of Pomerol and St. Emilion and goes by the name Bouchet. Cabernet Franc is also an important component to many of the wines made in southwestern France in the appellations of Bergerac and Madiran, where it is known as Bouchy. The grape is also widely planted in the Loire region under the name Bretton.

Generally, Cabernet Franc exhibits herbal flavors with earthy, organic hints like mushrooms, moss and tobacco. In Bordeaux and California the grape tends to be used as a blending grape to add structure to wines. It is acknowledged as one of the three primary grapes used to make "classic" Bordeaux-style claret.



Aromas and flavors usually associated with Cabernet Franc: Mushrooms Sweet Herbs Fall Leaves Moss Humus Tobacco Strawberry Damp Tree Bark Cocoa Tea

Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is considered by many to be the definitive red grape variety. Like Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon is well traveled, excelling in almost every country where it is grown. Cabernet Sauvignon is a powerful grape, capable of producing massive levels of tannin and acidity. The wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon tend to be deeply pigmented and high in phenolics (I think of phenolics as the "things” that make wine "chewy”). Cabernet Sauvignon achieved fame as one of three grapes that go into the making of red Bordeaux wine (the other two being Cabernet Franc and Merlot).

In France, the grape tends to exhibit more mineral hints with a tendency towards greater spiciness, including tobacco, cedar and cocoa hints.

In California and Australia, the grape tends to exhibit more mint and vanilla hints with a tendency towards greater fruitiness, including cherry, blackberry and blueberry hints.

Cabernet Sauvignon shines in warmer climates and exhibits more "green” vegetal flavors when grown in colder climates.

Chile is experiencing great success with the grape, as is Italy.

South Africa's most widely planted red grape is Cabernet Sauvignon, but many that I've tasted have been more on the "cool climate: side of the taste spectrum.
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Cabernet Sauvignon: Black Cherry Cedar Vanilla Chocolate Black Currant Herbs Blackberry Tobacco Mint Black Pepper Blueberry Tea Cocoa

Grenache
Grenache is known primarily as a blending grape and is used just so in the many countries that claim "ownership" of the grape. In Spain the grape is known as Garnacha and is an important component of the wines from Rioja. In Sardinia the grape is known as Cannonau and makes full-bodied fruity wines with prodigious levels of alcohol.

In France, Grenache is an essential component to many of the wines made in the south of France, especially Chateauneuf-du-Pape, Cotes du Rhone, Tavel, Lirac, Gigondas and the Cotes du Ventoux. Stylistically wines made from Grenache are highly alcoholic with a rustic edge and sweet berry flavors and aromas. Typically light in color, low in tannin and acidity, Grenache, unless blended with grapes with better structure, is not long-lived.

In the US a few winemakers vinify a rose version of the grape, which when the wine is dry and refreshing like its cousin in Tavel, makes a great summer quaff. However, when made sweet like the rose version of Zinfandel, the wines are pretty awful.
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Grenache: Strawberry Pepper Ethyl Acetate Cranberry Sour Cherry Alcohol Lily Orange Peel Rasperry Iris Cranberry Banana Chips Rose Strawberry Cherry Violets

Merlot
When most people think of Merlot, they generally think of a softer, fleshier version of Cabernet Sauvignon, perhaps without "six-pack abs." Oddly enough, while most people inexorably link Cabernet Sauvignon with French Bordeaux, in reality, Merlot is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux, responsible for most of the wines made from the Entre-Deux-Mers, Pomerol, and St. Emilion areas.

Because Merlot tends to be softer and fleshier than Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot is often relegated to the role of "blending grape." In recent years, with a rise in popularity in the US, Merlot has established its own following. Merlot tends to fall into two categories: light-weight, fruity "quaffers," and dense, full-bodied "long-agers." In the former case, the wines tend to be easy drinking with light tannins and a soft, supple structure. In the latter case, the wines are big, bold with often-massive tannins and long-evolving complexity.

A lot of inexpensive California Merlot falls into the "light-weight" category, with the more expensive bottles inheriting the expected density and complexity of higher-priced wines. In France, most Bordeaux AOC and Bordeaux Superieur (from around Entre-Deux-Mers) at an often very reasonable price-point falls into the light-bodied category.

The wines from Pomerol and St. Emilion, many legendary like Chateau Petrus, are massive wines with tremendous aging potential.
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Merlot: Plum Cigar Box Cocoa Blackberry Prune Mint Coffee Cherry Spice Vanilla

Nebbiolo
Nebbiolo is native to Piedmont in Italy and is known for making massive, powerful wines that are remarkably long-lived, requiring considerable aging to achieve maturity. The wines of Barolo, Barbaresco, Gattinara and Ghemme are all Nebbiolo or Nebbiolo-based wines. In other regions of Italy, the grape is known as Spanna and Chiavennasca.

Generally, Nebbiolo makes wines with high acidity, firm tannins, intense coloring and high alcohol. The nose is frequently subtle and delicate, especially when young. Wines made from Nebbiolo need considerable bottle aging with the reward for such patience being the unlocking of the often-delicate floral scents and the layered complexity of fine Nebbiolo.
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Nebbiolo: Tar Bitter Chocolate Truffles
Roses Cocoa Twigs Violets

Pinot Noir
Pinot Noir is an often-misunderstood grape, primarily because it has really only achieved true greatness in France's Burgundy and Champagne regions.

Outside of France it has had moderate success in Oregon and some of the cooler areas of California, such as Los Carneros and Santa Barbara.

At its best, Pinot Noir is aromatic and complex with a smooth texture and long aftertaste. The wines are moderately tannic at best, with moderate acidity making for less aging potential than the massively structured Cabernet Sauvignon. Given that Pinot Noir is a somewhat fickle grape means that there is a high degree of variability between producers and vintages. When picked unripe or grown in climates too warm for the grape, Pinot Noir tastes cooked, madierized, almost like rotting vegetables.

Generally, though, Pinot Noir tends to fall into two categories: Fruity and Organic. In the former case, the wines are more fruit driven with hints of raspberries, cherries and strawberries. These wines are more delicate and simpler with subtle tannins. In the latter case, the wines are more organic in nature with hints of mushrooms, earth, and smoke. The wines are full-bodied, denser with more exotic spice traces and firmer tannins.

Under the right conditions, Pinot Noir can make some of the most beautiful wine, being one of the few red wines that goes well with fish (Salmon is a particularly good match).
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Pinot Noir: Raspberries Violets Cherries Strawberries Lilacs Clove Plum Truffles 
Earth Smoke Gamy Leather Meaty

Sangiovese
Sangiovese is the most widely planted grape variety in Italy, having particular success in the Chianti district of Tuscany. The grape derives its name from the Latin sanguis jovis, meaning, "blood of Jupiter," the Roman equivalent of the Greek god Zeus. Like the prodigious Zeus, Sangiovese has many clones: Brunello, Prugnolo, and Morellino are among the better known clones.

Stylistically wines made from Sangiovese are evolving. In the past, Sangiovese was prone to making wines that were lean and acidic, with a pronounced rustic feel. Today, Sangiovese wines are becoming fuller, softer, more fragrant and especially more fruit driven. The evolution is due in part to a modernization of age-old winemaking techniques, as well as better viticultural practices in the vineyard. Despite this evolution, the character of Sangiovese is relatively unchanged, with the grape still exhibiting a rustic and savory appeal with pronounced acidity and moderate tannins.
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Sangiovese: Cherry Thyme Wood Orange Peel Spice Clove Leather Licorice Char

Shiraz
Syrah, or Shiraz as the grape is known "down under" in Australia, is known to make "deeply exotic" and intensely spicy wines that are generally full-bodied and long aging. The grape was thought to be from the town of Shiraz in Ancient Persia, but genetic science has proven that the grape is actually native to France, a cross between to indigenous French grapes: Dureza and Mondeuse Blanche.

 The grape enjoys its greatest success in the Rhone Valley of France, as well as in Australia, where James Busby first brought clippings in 1832. A growing amount of Syrah is cropping-up in California, where it is especially successful in the Central Coast AVA. Stylistically Syrah falls into two categories: Fruit driven (typically "New World") and Spice driven (typically "Old World").

New World or Fruit driven Syrah can be like blackberry jam, intensely fruity with great density and aromas of vanilla bean. Old World or Spice driven Syrah is like fresh milled black pepper, lively with aromas of rosemary, anise and lavender and full of musky, gamy qualities.

 Generally, in both cases Syrah makes wines that are heavily pigmented, highly tannic and high in alcohol (almost always at 14% by volume). In the Northern Rhone regions of Hermitage and Cote Rotie where the red wines are made with 100% Syrah grapes, it is said that the longevity of those wines (20+ years in a notable vintages) is due in part to the suffering that the vines endure, planted on steeply sloped vineyards still harvested by hand.


Aromas and flavors usually associated with Syrah/Shiraz: Smoke Mineral Game Mint 
Tar Leather Blackberry Pepper Raspberry Chocolate Spice Herb Lavender Musk Anise Jam

Zinfandel
In years past Zinfandel was often considered the workhorse of California, producing a wide range of wine from rose jug wines to dense fortified "Port-like" wines. Interestingly, while Zinfandel is distinctly Californian, never having traveled outside the state in great quantity, it is not native to the US. Genetically the grape has been shown to be identical to the Italian Primativo grape from Apulia, although Primativo is not native to Italy either.

Intense, full-bodied wines with flavors of ripe raspberries showing hints of black pepper and candied fruit.
Aromas and flavors usually associated with Zinfandel: Raspberry Blackberry Raisin Black Pepper Clove Cedar Anise Tar 
Candied Fruit Nutmeg Vanilla Spice

Barbera
Barbera is a widely planted grape that is often used as the basis for large amounts of bulk wine. In Italy and in California, Barbera has enjoyed its greatest success. Wines made from Barbera tend to exhibit high acidity, good coloration and moderate tannins. Stylistically, the characteristics present is the wine are directly related to the quality of the winemaking. When given serious attention both in the vineyard and in the winery, Barbera can turn out incredibly perfumed wines with smooth tannins and a long, complex aftertaste. When given less attention, or treated poorly, Barbera becomes more nondescript, highly acidic plonk.
Aromas and flavors: Sour Cherry Plum Vanilla Cinnamon

Gamay

Gamay is indigenous to the Beaujolais region in France and like many grapes, is sharply influenced by soil type and climate. For this reason, Gamay has vastly different flavor profiles throughout the region. In southern portions of the region, where vast quantities of Beaujolais and Beaujolais-Villages are made, Gamay makes wines that are light, fruit-driven with very low tannin. In the northern reaches of the region, where the ten Beaujolais crus are located, Gamay makes wines that are richer, more full-bodied, exhibiting almost Pinot Noir-like flavors. Gamay is also the grape used to make Beaujolais-Villages Nouveau, the perennial favorite of the Thanksgiving table. The Nouveau wines employ a process referred to as Carbonic Maceration, which is an enzymatic fermentation process that occurs without yeast in the "whole berries" of the grape. The process takes approximately three weeks from start to finish and produces wines that are extremely light-bodied and intensely fruity, meant to be consumed immediately. Over the years the media hype around the annual release of Nouveau (generally on November 19th) has often eclipsed the quality of the wine being touted. While generally never thought of as "serious wine," Gamay can make the ideal summer red, designed to encourage the celebration of friends.
Aromas and flavors: Lily Orange Peel Raspberry Iris Cranberry  Banana Chips Rose Strawberry Cherry Violets

 

WINE MENU
For your Certification, Level II Test, you will be serving a table of four Master Sommeliers…They will be looking for your guidance in selecting cocktails before dinner, wine with, and after dinner drinks. Put together a list of about 4 appertifs, five red wines, five white wines and a couple of after dinner options. Also, know your basic cocktails.


Refer to the PCI videos on Youtube about opening a Champange bottle, and decanting a red wine. On the Champange one, note how the thumb is ALWAYS over the cork and the cage, which they leave on.

 

Use the below list if you like; after you assemble your list, copy and paste wines name into google and find tasting notes; you need to understand why you are recommending the wine based on what they are ordering. They may try and trip you by all four having something slightly different and ask for ONE bottle for all of them…Remember, a Pinot Noir CAN go with fish…and a big chard CAN go with meat.

 

CHAMPAGNE & SPARKLING WINE
Laetitia, Brut Cuvée, Arroyo Grande Valley, NV $32
Taittinger, Reims, Brut, NV 375ml  $45
J, Brut Rosé, Russian River Valley, NV  $50
Henri Abelé, Brut, Reims, NV  $55
Argyle, Brut, Willamette Valley, Oregan, 2002  $55
Piper-Heidsieck Brut, Reims, NV 59
Nicolas Feuillatte, Brut, Premier Cru, Epernay, NV  $60
Taittinger, Reims, Brut, 2002 115
Vueve Cliquot Ponsardin Rosé, Reims, 2002  $120
Gosset ‘Celebris,‘ Brut, Champagne, 1996   $160

SAUVIGNON BLANC
Brander, Santa Ynez Valley, 2007   $30
Gainey, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005  $33
Dog Point, Marlborough, New Zealand, 2007  $34
Carhartt, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006  $34
DeSante, Napa Valley, 2004  $35
Great Oaks Ranch, Santa Ynes Valley, 2006  $35
Westerly, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006  $37
Babcock, Estate, Santa Rita Hills, 2007  $38
Margerum, Vogelzang Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005  $40
Fiddlehead, “Hunnysuckle,” Santa Ynez Valley, 2003  $50

 

GEWURTZTRAMINER & REISLINGS
Hugel Gewürztraminer, Alsace, France, 2003 375ml   $22
Fitz-Ritter Gewurztraminer, Pfalz, Germany, 2004  $30
Bedford Thompson Gewürztraminer, Santa Barbara County, 2001  $27
Domaine Weinbach, Gewürztraminer Reserve Personelle, Alsace, France, 2004  $60
Domaine Zind-Humbrecht Gewürztraminer, Herrenweg de Turckheim, 2004  $69
Mosby Traminer, Santa Barbara County, 2003  $25
Palmina Traminer, Alisos Vineyard, Santa Barbara County, 2004 $37
Firestone Riesling, Santa Barbara County, 2006  $20
Dr. Loosen Riesling, “Blue Slate,” Mosel, Germany, 2007  $30
Pikes Dry Riesling, Clare Valley, Australia, 2005  $36
Josmeyer Riesling, “Le Kottabe,“ Alsace, France, 2004  $45
J. L. Wolf Riesling, Pfalz, Germany, 2004   $47
Emrich-Schönleber Riesling, Nahe, Spätlese, Frühlingsplatzchen, 2005  $50

CHARDONNAY

Arcadian, Sleepy Hollow Vineyard, Santa Lucia Highlands, 2005 375ml  $36
Au Bon Climat, Santa Barbara County, 2007  $34
Rusack, Santa Barbara County, 2006  $40
Foley, Rancho Santa Rosa, Santa Rita Hills, 2006  $45
Melville, Santa Rita Hills, Estate, 2005  $45
Ojai Vineyard, Solomon Hills Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2006  $55
Longoria, Cuvée Diana, Sta. Rita Hills, 2004  $55
Tantara, Brosseau Vineyard, Chalone, 2005  $57
Clos Pepe Estate, Santa Rita Hills, 2006   $65
Diatom, Huber Vineyard, Santa Rita Hills, 2005  $65
Brewer-Clifton, Sea Smoke, Santa Rita Hills, 2006  $80
Arcadian, Sleepy Hollow Vineyard, Santa Lucia Highlands, 2005  $71
Whitcraft Winery, Bien Nacido Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2007  $75
Bonaccorsi, Nielson Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2006   $75
Paul Hobbs, Russian River Valley, 2005  $75

WHITE RHÔNE VARIETALS

Vieux Télégraphe, Châteauneuf-du-Pape, France, 2007 375ml  $55
Qupé Marsanne, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005  $35
Alban Vineyards Viognier, Central Coast, 2007  $34
Cold Heaven Viognier, Sanford & Benedict, Santa Barbara County, 2006  $55
Deux C, ‘’50-50,’’ Domaine des Deux Mondes, NV  $80
Iris’ Estate Viognier, Rideau Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2004  $75
Tablas Creek Roussanne, Paso Robles, Estate, 2004  $43

ALTERNATIVE WHITES
Vixen Dry Rosè, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005  $30
Tre Anelli, Verdehlo, California, 2006  $30
Vionta Albariño, Ríax Baixas, Estate, Spain, 2005  $31
Longoria Albariño, Clover Creek Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006  $29
Tantara Pinot Blanc, Bien Nacido Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2005 375ml  $22
Carr Pinot Gris, Turner Vineyard, Santa Rita Hills , 2005  $30
Palmina Pinot Grigio, Santa Barbara County, 2007  $36
Domaine Pichot,, Vouvray, France, 2005  $30
Brander “Natalie” Cuvée, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006  $32
Artiste, ‘’Impressionist Blanc,’’ White Table Wine, California, NV  $37
Domaine William Fevre, Chablis, 2006  $50
François Jobard, Mersault Poruzots, Burgundy, 2003  $110
 

SYRAH
Cimarone, Three Creek Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005  $40
Rusack, Santa Barbara County, 2005  $40
Falcone Family Vineyards, Mia’s Vineyard, Paso Robles, 2004   $45
Blair Fox, Paradise Road Vineyard, Santa Barbara County, 2003   $53
Jaffurs, Bien Nacido Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2006   $54
Tensley, Colson Canyon Vineyard, Santa Barbara County, 2006   $55
Qupé, Bien Nacido Hillside Estate, Santa Maria Valley, 2004   $60
Margerum, Colson Canyon Vineyard, Santa Barbara County, 2005   $67
Samsara, Verna’s Vineyard, Santa Barbara County, 2006   $68
Foxen, Williamson Doré, Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $75
Beckmen, Purisima Mountain, Block 6, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006   $80
Ojai Vineyard, Roll Ranch Vineyard, California, 2003   $85
Bonaccorsi, Star Lane Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $98
Loring, ‘Hospice du Rhône,’ Gary’s Vineyard, Santa Lucia Highlands, 2005   $120
Alban, “Reva,” Estate, Edna Valley, 2004   $140

RED RHÔNE VARIETALS & BLENDS
Tablas Creek, Esprit de Beaucastel, Paso Robles, 2005 375ml   $25
Ethan, Grenache, Alta Mesa Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $40
Kaena, Grenache, Tierra Alta Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2004   $45
Feliz Noche, Grenache, Santa Barbara County, 2004   $50
E. Guigal, Crozes-Hermitage, France, 2004   $46
Zaca Mesa, “Z Cuvée,” Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $40
Hug, “El Papé,” Central Coast, 2006   $40
Kaena, ‘’Hapa,’’ Red Table Wine, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006   $45
Demetria, “Cuvée Constantine,” Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $55
Chapoutier, “La Bernadine,” Châteauneuf-du-Pape, France, 2004   $69
Château de Beaucastel, Châteauneuf-du-Pape, France, 2005   $155
Saxum, James Berry Vineyard, Paso Robles, 2005   $90

CABERNET SAUVIGNON
Falcone Family Vineyards, Mia’s Vineyard, Paso Robles, 2006   $45
Justin, Paso Robles, 2006   $45
St. Clement, Napa Valley, 2004   $50
Star Lane, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $82
Hartwell, “Miste Hill,” Stag’s Leap District, Napa Valley, 2003   $112
Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars, “Fay”, Napa Valley, 2004   $125
Silver Oak, Alexander Valley, 2004   $130
Caymus, Special Selection, Napa Valley, 2005   $180

BORDEAUX VARIETALS & BLENDS

Château Trimoulet, Saint-Émilion Grand Cru, France, 2003   $60
Tritono, Malbec, Mendoza, Argentina, 2004   $61
Swanson, “Alexis,” Napa Valley 2002   $70
Lancaster, Meritage Reserve, Alexander Valley, 2001   $80
Justin, “Isosceles,” Paso Robles, 2004   $104
Merryvale, “Profile,” Napa Valley, 2002   $150

 

PINOT NOIR 34
Tantara, Solomon Hills Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2005 375ml    $40
Kosta Browne, Russian River Valley, 2006 375ml   $65
Robert Sinskey, Los Carneros, Napa Valley, 2006   $45
Ken Brown, Santa Barbara County, 2006   $48
Foley, Santa Rita Hills, Rancho Santa Rosa, 2006   $52
Loring,, Gary’s Vineyard, Santa Lucia Highlands, 2005   $55
Melville, Estate, Santa Rita Hills, 2006   $58
Foxen, Santa Maria Valley, 2007   $60
Cargasacchi, Santa Barbara County, 2006   $65
Ampelos, Ampelos Vineyard, Santa Rita Hills, 2005   $69
Domaine Alfred, Chamisal Vineyards, Edna Valley, 2005   $70
Tantara, Solomon Hills, Santa Maria Valley, 2006   $70
Roessler, “La Brisa,” Peay Vineyard, Sonoma Coast, 2003   $70
Dierberg, Santa Maria Valley, 2005   $75
Gainey, Santa Rita Hills, Limited Selection, 2004   $75
Flying Goat, Dierberg Vineyard, Santa Maria Valley, 2006   $75
Fiddlehead Cellars, “Seven Twenty-Eight,” Santa Rita Hills, Estate, 2005   $76
Longoria, Fe Ciega Vineyard, Santa Rita Hills, 2006   $77
Archery Summit, Willamette Valley, Premier Cuveé, Oregon, 2003   $81
Siduri, Cargasacchi Vineyard, Santa Rita Hills, 2006   $89
Bonaccorsi, Santa Rita Hills, 2005   $90
Melville, Clone 115- “Indigène,” Santa Rita Hills, 2006   $115
Arcadian, Pisoni Vineyard, Santa Lucia Highlands, Monterey, 2003   $115
Melville, ‘’Carrie’s,’’ Santa Rita Hills, 2004   $120
Foxen, Sea Smoke Vineyard, Sta Rita Hills, 2006   $150
Brewer-Clifton, “Kimberly,” Santa Rita Hills, 2002   $150
Sea Smoke, “Southing,” Santa Rita Hills, 2005   $160
Kosta Browne, Kanzler Vineyard, Sonoma Coast, 2005   $175

MERLOT
Gainey, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $33
Sunstone, Central Coast, 2006   $35
Three Saints, Estate, Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $35
Carhartt, Santa Ynez Valley, 2004   $47
Twomey, Napa Valley, 2004   $75

ZINFANDEL
Stephen Ross, Dante Dusi Vineyard, Paso Robles, 2005   $35
Rosenblum, Richard Sauret Vineyard, Paso Robles, 2006   $42
Consilience, Rhodes Vineyard, Redwood Valley, 2004   $48
Seghesio, Old Vine, Sonoma County, 2005   $51
Ridge, Lytton Springs, Dry Creek Valley, 2004   $70

ALTERNATIVE REDS

Consilience, Petite Sirah, Santa Barbara County, 2005   $45
Vandale, Sangiovese, Santa Ynez Valley, 2004   $45
Curran, Sangiovese, Santa Ynez Valley, 2001   $60
Huber, Dornfelder, Santa Rita Hills, Santa Barbara County, 2005   $55
Artiste, ‘’Rustique,’’ California, NV   $  $65
L’ Aventure, ‘’Optimus,’’ Stephan Vineyard, Paso Robles, 2005   $75
Palmina, Nebbiolo, Stolpman Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2004   $70
Andrea Oberto, Barolo, Italy, 2003   $86
Nicolas Potel, Volnay, Côte-d’Or, France, 2005   $90
Domaine Maume, Gevrey-Chambertin, Côte-d’Or, France 2005   $110
Gaja, ‘’DaGromis,’’ Barolo, Italy, 2001   $120

Wines By The Glass
Premium Sakes
Shichi Hon Yari, “The Seven Spearsmen,” Junmai   $6
Meibo, “Midnight Moon,” Junmai Ginjo   $8
Harushika, “Daiginjo,” Junmai Daiginjo   $12

White (prices are for glass - bottle)
Sparkling Wine, Laetitia, Brut Cuvée, Arroyo Grande Valley, NV    $11 -  $32
Chardonnay, Au Bon Climat, Santa Barbara County, 2007   $9 -  $34
Sauvignon Blanc, Peter Bruce, Santa Ynez Valley, 2006   $8 - $30
Riesling, Firestone, Santa Barbara County, 2006   $5  -  $20
Riesling, Dr. Loosen, “Blue Slate,” Mosel, Germany, 2007   $8 -  $30
Rosé of Syrah, Ampelos, Cuatro Vientos Vineyard, Santa Ynez Valley, 2007   $8 -   $30
White Rhône, Kaena “Hapa Blanc,” Santa Ynez Valley, 2007   $12 -   $48
Pinot Grigio, Palmina, Santa Barbara County, 2007   $9 -   $36
Viognier, Calzada Ridge, Santa Ynez Valley, 2007   $12 -  $48
Sauternes, Château Haut-Bergeron, France, 2004   $14

Red (prices are for glass - bottle)
Pinot Noir, Kenneth-Crawford, Turner Vineyard, Santa Rita Hills, 2006   $14 -  $55
Pinot Noir, Ken Brown, Santa Barbara County, 2006   $12 -  $48
‘’Beaujolais’’ Pinot Noir, Chien Tacheté, San Luis Obispo, 2008   $8 -  $32
Merlot, Sunstone, Central Coast, 2006   $9 -  $35
Syrah, Ken Brown, Santa Barbara County, 2003   $12 -  $45
Syrah, Kenneth-Crawford, Four Play, Santa Barbara County, 2005   $12 -  $45
Cabernet Sauvignon, Lincourt, La Cuesta Vineyard, Santa Ynez, 2006   $10 -  $38
Red Rhône, Kaena, “Hapa,” Santa Ynez Valley, 2005   $12 -  $ 45
Sangiovese, Tantara, Paso Robles, 2003   $10 -  $ 40